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The vendor implementation variances noted with the use of the TABLE keyword in the GRANT statement (earlier in this chapter) apply in the same way to the REVOKE statement. In general, vendors support identical syntax between their GRANT and REVOKE statements except that TO in the GRANT statement becomes FROM in the REVOKE statement.
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Grant and Revoke Roles
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Now that you know how to create and delete roles and grant and revoke privileges, let s look at granting and revoking roles. We ll start with granting roles. To grant a role, you must use a GRANT statement to assign one or more role names to one or more authorization identifiers, as shown in the following syntax: GRANT <role name list> TO { PUBLIC | <authorization identifier list> } [ WITH ADMIN OPTION ] [ GRANTED BY { CURRENT_USER | CURRENT_ROLE } ] By now, most of this syntax should look quite familiar to you, except for a few variations. The GRANT clause allows you to specify a list of one or more role names. If you specify more than one name, you must separate them with commas. The TO clause allows you to specify one or more authorization identifiers. Again, if there are more than one, you must separate
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them with commas. You can also specify the PUBLIC authorization identifier to grant a role to all database users. The WITH ADMIN OPTION clause, which is optional, allows the authorization identifiers to grant the role to other users. And the GRANTED BY clause, which is also optional (and only supported in a few RDBMS products), is used in those rare instances when the user identifier/role name pair does not contain a null value. Let s look at an example. Suppose you have created a role named MANAGERS and you want to assign that role to a user identifier named LindaN. You would use the following syntax:
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GRANT MANAGERS TO LindaN;
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Now suppose you want to give LindaN the ability to grant the MANAGERS role to other users. To do this, you simply add the WITH ADMIN OPTION clause, as in the following example:
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GRANT MANAGERS TO LindaN WITH ADMIN OPTION;
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You can also grant multiple roles to multiple user identifiers. The user identifiers can be user identifiers or other role names. In the following example, I grant the MANAGERS role and ACCOUNTING role to the LindaN user identifier and the MARKETING role name:
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GRANT MANAGERS, ACCOUNTING TO LindaN, MARKETING WITH ADMIN OPTION;
Now that you know how to grant roles to authorization identifiers, it s time to learn how to revoke those roles.
Revoking Roles
Revoking roles is a lot like revoking privileges. The statement that you use to revoke privileges is the REVOKE statement, as shown in the following syntax: REVOKE [ ADMIN OPTION FOR ] <role name list> FROM { PUBLIC | <authorization identifier list> } [ GRANTED BY { CURRENT_USER | CURRENT_ROLE } ] { RESTRICT | CASCADE } As you can see, there is nothing new in the syntax except for the ADMIN OPTION FOR clause, which is similar to the GRANT OPTION FOR clause used when revoking privileges. It allows you to revoke the ability to assign roles to other users, without revoking the role itself.
NOTE
The same Oracle, SQL Server, and MySQL variances mentioned with revoking privileges apply to this use of the REVOKE statement.
Let s take a look at an example of revoking a role. Suppose you ve granted the MANAGERS role to the LindaN user identifier. You can revoke that role by using the following REVOKE statement:
REVOKE MANAGERS FROM LindaN CASCADE;
6:
Managing Database Security
If you had granted the MANAGERS role and the ACCOUNTING role to LindaN and the MARKETING role, your REVOKE statement would look like the following:
REVOKE MANAGERS, ACCOUNTING FROM LindaN, MARKETING CASCADE;
Now that we ve looked at how to grant and revoke roles, you can see how similar this is to granting and revoking privileges. Again, I must stress that not all implementations are alike with regard to how they grant and revoke privileges and roles, so be sure to review your product documentation and work closely with the database administrator.
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