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The HAVING clause in this statement will work because the ON_HAND values are being added together, which means they can work within the group structure. The query results would be as follows:
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PRICE ----15.99 16.99 14.99 15.99 16.99 CATEGORY -----------Instrumental Instrumental Vocal Vocal Vocal TOTAL_ON_HAND ------------23 50 99 73 45
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The HAVING clause is applied to the results after they have been grouped together (in the GROUP BY clause). For each group, the ON_HAND values are added together, but only groups with TOTAL_ON_HAND values over 10 are included. If the HAVING clause were not included, the query results would include an additional row for the 14.99/ Instrumental group. For the most part, you ll probably find that you ll be using the HAVING clause in conjunction with the GROUP BY clause. By using these two together, you can group together relevant data and then filter that data to refine your search even further. The HAVING clause also has the advantage of allowing you to use set functions such as AVG or SUM, which you cannot use in a WHERE clause unless you place them within a subquery. The important points to keep in mind with the HAVING clause are that it is the last clause in the table expression to be applied and that it is concerned with grouped data, rather than individual rows.
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The ORDER BY clause, when it is used in a SELECT statement, is the last clause to be processed. The ORDER BY clause takes the output from the SELECT clause and orders the query results according to the specifications within the ORDER BY clause. The clause does not group rows together, as they re grouped by the GROUP BY clause, nor does it filter out rows, as they re filtered by the WHERE clause or the HAVING clause. You can, however, specify whether the rows are organized in an ascending order (by using the ASC keyword) or in descending order (by using the DESC keyword). To use the ORDER BY clause, simply specify one or more columns and the optional ASC or DESC keywords (one per column). If a keyword is not specified, ASC is assumed. The rows are organized according to the column you specify. If you define more than one column in the ORDER BY clause, the rows are organized in the order in which the columns are specified. Let s take a look at a few examples to clarify how the ORDER BY clause works. (The examples are based on the COMPACT_DISC_STOCK table in Figure 7-4.) In the first example, I order the rows based on the PRICE column:
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SELECT * FROM COMPACT_DISC_STOCK WHERE PRICE < 16.00 ORDER BY PRICE;
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Notice that the PRICE column is specified in the ORDER BY clause. Also notice that neither the ASC nor the DESC keyword has been specified, so the ASC keyword will be assumed. If you execute this query, you will receive results similar to the following:
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COMPACT_DISC ------------------------------------Blue Court and Spark That Christmas Feeling Blues on the Bayou Orlando Carreras Domingo Pavarotti in Concert Leonard Cohen The Best Of Fundamental Past Light Kojiki CATEGORY -----------Vocal Vocal Vocal Vocal Instrumental Vocal Vocal Vocal Instrumental Instrumental PRICE ----14.99 14.99 14.99 14.99 14.99 15.99 15.99 15.99 15.99 15.99 ON_HAND -------42 22 8 27 5 27 12 34 17 6
The rows are listed according to the PRICE column. The values in the PRICE column appear in ascending order (lowest price to highest price). Because the WHERE clause was specified, no rows with prices above 15.99 are included in the query results. Also, since only the PRICE column was included in the ORDER BY, the order of rows that have the same price is unpredictable. For example, the five rows with a PRICE of 14.99 will all appear before those with a PRICE of 15.99, but those five rows might appear in any order. In the next example, the SELECT statement is nearly the same as the last statement, except that an additional column is specified in the ORDER BY clause:
SELECT * FROM COMPACT_DISC_STOCK WHERE PRICE < 16.00 ORDER BY PRICE, ON_HAND DESC;
In this case, the ON_HAND column is followed by the DESC keyword, which means that the rows will be listed in descending order. However, because there are two columns, the rows are first ordered by the PRICE column and then by the ON_HAND column. If you execute this SELECT statement, you ll receive the following results:
COMPACT_DISC ------------------------------------Blue Blues on the Bayou Court and Spark That Christmas Feeling Orlando Fundamental Carreras Domingo Pavarotti in Concert Past Light Leonard Cohen The Best Of Kojiki CATEGORY -----------Vocal Vocal Vocal Vocal Instrumental Vocal Vocal Instrumental Vocal Instrumental PRICE ----14.99 14.99 14.99 14.99 14.99 15.99 15.99 15.99 15.99 15.99 ON_HAND ------42 27 22 8 5 34 27 17 12 6
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