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Connecting to the Database
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When using SQL on a personal computer with a personal copy of a DBMS such as Microsoft Access or Oracle Personal Edition, all of the database components are running on one computer system. However, this arrangement isn t adequate for
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CHAPTER 2 SQL Concepts
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databases that need to be shared by multiple users. Therefore, it is much more common for the database to be deployed in a client/server arrangement as shown in Figure 2-1. In a client/server arrangement: The DBMS software runs on a server, which is a shared computer system. For the purposes of this de nition, a mainframe computer system can be considered a large server. The les that physically comprise the database are stored on disks that are connected to the database server. Users accessing the database use workstations called clients to access the database. The client must have a network connection to the database, which can be a private network deployed in a home or of ce or a public network such as the Internet. Software provided by the DBMS vendor runs on the client workstation to provide the user with the ability to enter SQL statements, submit them to the DBMS for processing, and view the results returned by the DBMS. This software is generically known as the SQL client. It should be noted that nothing stops someone from installing the SQL client software on the same computer system as the DBMS itself. In fact, application
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Client Workstation Running SQL Client Software
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Figure 2-1
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SQL client connection to the database
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SQL Demysti ed
developers using DBMSs such as MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, and Oracle commonly do this because it is so convenient to have the entire environment on a single computer system, such as a laptop. However, the moment shared access by multiple users is required, it is more convenient and ef cient to have a single copy of the DBMS on a shared server and to have only the SQL client installed on each user s workstation. SQL clients are categorized by the user interface on the client workstation, with three basic types: command-line, graphical, and web-based. A command-line interface is based solely on textual input and output, with commands entered from the keyboard and responses to the commands displayed as text messages. The main bene t of command-line interfaces is that they can run on just about any operating system. As an example of a command-line SQL client, Figure 2-2 shows Oracle SQL*Plus (one of Oracle s SQL clients) running in a Microsoft Windows command window. A graphical user interface (GUI) runs under some sort of windowing system, such as the X Window System, Mac OS, or Microsoft Windows, and displays data and command options using graphical features such as icons, buttons, and dialog boxes. Figure 2-3 shows Oracle SQL*Plus running as a GUI application on Microsoft Windows. A web-based interface runs on the database server, using a web browser on the client workstation to interact with the database user. Technically, a web-based SQL client isn t a client application at all because there is no
Figure 2-2
Oracle SQL*Plus running in a Microsoft Windows command window.
CHAPTER 2 SQL Concepts
Figure 2-3
Oracle SQL*Plus running as a Microsoft Windows application
DBMS vendor speci c software running on the client workstation. However, there are almost always DBMS vendor supplied components that are silently downloaded by the web browser to assist it in the graphical presentation of the web form used for entering SQL statements and displaying results. Figure 2-4 shows the Oracle iSQL*Plus client running in the Mozilla Firefox browser. The following table lists SQL client software from various DBMS vendors. There isn t space in this book to cover all the details about every SQL client that you might use, so please consult your DBMS vendor s documentation for information on installing and using the SQL client(s) available for your DBMS.
Vendor Microsoft DBMS Access SQL Client None Description Microsoft Access is a personal use database, so the SQL client is integrated into the DBMS, all of which runs locally on the user s workstation. SQL client that runs as a command-line application in a Microsoft Windows command shell. SQL client that runs as a Microsoft Windows application.
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