barcode generator in vb.net code project De ning Database Objects Using SQL in Software

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CHAPTER 3 De ning Database Objects Using SQL
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Assisting the RDBMS in ef ciently storing the column data. For example, numbers can often be stored in an internal numeric format that saves space, compared with merely storing the numeric digits as a string of characters. SQL supports three categories of data types: prede ned types, constructed types, and user-de ned types. Prede ned data types are those that are supplied as a native part of the RDBMS by the vendor. Constructed data types, also known as collection types, hold arrays or sets of prede ned data types, usually for the purpose of representing object-oriented data constructs in the RDMS. User-de ned data types, in those RDBMSs that provide them, allow the database user to de ne their own data types, tailored to speci c purposes. In the remainder of this section, the SQL:2003 standard prede ned data types are presented, followed by discussions of variations among today s most popular RDBMS products. Constructed data types and the creation of user-de ned data types are a bit too advanced for an introductory book like this one.
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SQL:2003 Standard Data Types
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One of the biggest challenges to SQL portability across different vendor implementations is dealing with the enormous variation in supported data types. Many vendors went off on their own, prior to the adoption of standards, in response to customer demands. Most modern SQL implementations support all or most of the SQL:2003 standard data types, as presented here. Most people nd it convenient to group the SQL data types by the general class of data that they support. As you might guess, these classi cations can be subject to debate, and in fact, the SQL:2003 standard de nes some data types as belonging to more than one group. To avoid unnecessary confusion, I have listed each data type in only one group, with each group described in a separate topic. For each data type, there is a description, followed by the SQL syntax for it, and an example or two. Many of the data types are used in the video store sample database SQL if you want to see more examples.
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Character data types hold strings of characters, where a character can be any letter, number, or other symbol allowed by the computer system hosting the database. In general, it is a good practice to use character data types for numeric strings that will never be used in arithmetic operations or sorted in numeric order because they are more exible than numeric data types. For example, it is usually best to store phone
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numbers, ZIP codes, social security numbers, and the like as character data types. The standard character data types are Fixed-length character A character string of nite length. A length is always included to denote the size of the character string being stored. Shorter strings are padded with spaces on the right-hand end so that all strings in a column of this data type are exactly the same number of characters in length. The SQL syntax is
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CHARACTER(length) | CHAR(length) Example: SOCIAL_SECURITY_NUMBER CHAR(9)
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National character A variation of CHARACTER that is stored in a particular national character set. This data type is intended to handle translations of character strings into various national languages. The SQL syntax is
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NATIONAL CHARACTER(length) | NCHAR(length) Example: MOVIE_TITLE NCHAR(100)
Variable character A character string of variable length. A length is always included to denote the maximum size of the character string being stored. This is a great space saver for strings that naturally vary in length, such as names and addresses. However, there is some overhead because the RDBMS must store the actual length of the string with the string itself (usually adding 1 byte to the physical size of the string) and must do a little extra work to calculate the length before storing the string. The SQL syntax is
CHARACTER VARYING(maximum_length) | VARCHAR(maximum_length) Example: CUSTOMER_NAME VARCHAR(125)
National variable character A variation of variable character that is stored in a particular national character set. Like NCHAR, this data type is intended to handle translations of character strings into various national languages. The SQL syntax is
NATIONAL CHARACTER VARYING(maximum_length) | NVARCHAR(maximum_length) Example: MOVIE_TITLE NVARCHAR(100)
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