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14. Find the average price of a DVD movie (column DVD_RETAIL_PRICE in the MOVIE table), with the calculated average rounded up to the nearest whole dollar. 15. Find the average price of a VHS movie (column VHS_RETAIL_PRICE in the MOVIE table), with the calculated average rounded down to the nearest whole dollar. 16. For an Oracle database, generate the SQL commands to drop all the referential constraints owned by the current user. The Oracle catalog view is called USER_CONSTRAINTS, and referential constraints have a CONSTRAINT_TYPE of R . The table name on which the constraint is based is in the TABLE_NAME column of the catalog view. Remember that you have to use the ALTER TABLE command to drop table constraints. 17. For a Microsoft SQL Server database, list all the foreign key constraints. Use the SYSOBJECTS system table, where NAME is the name of the constraint, and XTYPE has the value F for foreign key constraints. 18. Write an SQL statement that lists each Customer Account (CUSTOMER_ ACCOUNT_ID) with a character string based on the value of CHILD_ RENTAL_ALLOWED_INDIC where the string shows Child Rental OK if the value is Y and NO CHILD RENTAL if the value is N . Hint: A simple CASE expression should work the best here. 19. Write an SQL statement that lists each Movie (MOVIE_ID) along with the decade based on the value of YEAR_PRODUCED (80s, 90s, 00s, Unknown). A search CASE expression should be helpful here. 20. Write an SQL statement that lists each movie rental (MOVIE_RENTAL table) with the LATE_OR_LOSS_FEE categorized as follows: None (data value null or 0), Minor (data value < 10), Major (data value >=10).
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CHAPTER
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Maintaining Data Using DML
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Thus far we have looked at Data De nition Language (DDL), which is used to create and modify the database objects that hold and organize the data in the database, and Data Query Language (DQL), which is used to select data from the database. This chapter covers Data Manipulation Language (DML), which is the part of SQL that is used to maintain the data that is stored in the database s relational tables. DML is comprised of three SQL commands: INSERT UPDATE Adds new rows to a database table Updates existing database table rows
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DELETE Deletes rows from a database table Keep in mind that each individual DML statement can affect data in only one table. It is possible to reference a view in a DML statement, including one that contains data from more than one table (that is, a view that contains a table join), but in that case,
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SQL Demysti ed
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the DML statement may only reference the columns from one of the tables in the view. Said another way, when a DML statement references a view, the view columns referenced in the DML statement must all map to columns of one physical table in the database. The DBMS you are using most likely offers some form of transaction support, wherein a series of SQL DML statements can be considered an all or nothing group of statements that must either all be successful or all fail. This feature is very useful when SQL statements are used in business transactions and is covered in detail in 9. If you try out any of the statements in this chapter (as I strongly recommend), you can ignore transaction support, unless you are using Oracle. With the Oracle database, transaction support is automatically activated when you connect to the database. This means that none of the modi cations you make will be permanently made in the database until you either disconnect (exit) from the database normally or issue a commit command. That won t be an issue under normal circumstances, but if your computer system or your Oracle session crashes (that is, you exit the database abnormally), any changes you have made since you connected to the database will be automatically rolled back. Moreover, if you have multiple connections to the database at the same time, the changes made by one connection (session) won t be seen by any other concurrent connection until a commit has been performed. If you are using Oracle and want to change the default behavior, see 9 for details on how to do so. Even if transaction support is not speci cally enabled, the DBMS will handle each individual DML statement as a transaction. This means that if the DBMS nds an error with a modi cation to any row identi ed by the DML statement, it will roll back the statement so that the net effect is a complete failure of the DML statement for all rows in the table. In other words, the DBMS will never leave the data in an inconsistent state. For example, if I tried to delete all rows in the MOVIE table, and the DBMS encountered an error deleting the third row in the table (having already deleted the rst two rows in the table), the entire statement would fail and the rollback operation would automatically (some say automagically ) put the rst two rows back. The SQL statements in this chapter assume that your DBMS is using the format YYYY-MM-DD for date values in SQL statements. If your DBMS uses a different format, you will have to alter the examples in this chapter to run them successfully on your DBMS. For Oracle databases, the following statement will change Oracle s default date format to the one that is used in this chapter but only for the current session (the default format will be assumed every time you re-connect to the database):
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ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT='YYYY-MM-DD';
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