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For database administrators who support databases from multiple vendors, one of the challenges is that, with the exception of Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server, no two databases have the same architecture for database security. Of course, this is a side effect of the overall database architectures being different.
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The only reason that Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server have such similar architectures is that the former was derived from the latter. Because Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle are among the most popular databases today, let s have a quick look at how each implements database security.
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With Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server, once the DBMS software is installed on the server, a database server is created. This is a confusing term, of course, because we call the hardware a server. In this case, the server or SQL Server is a copy of the DBMS software running in memory as a set of processes (also called services in Windows environments) with related control information that is stored in a special database on the SQL Server. I will use the term SQL Server to mean the DBMS software and the term database server to mean the hardware platform on which the database is running. In this architecture, each SQL Server manages many databases, with each database representing a logical grouping of data as determined by the database designer. Figure 8-1 shows a simpli ed view of the security architecture for Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server.
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User B
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Table T2
Database Products
Gr an
User C
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User D
Table T4
Figure 8-1
Database security in Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server
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Security in Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server may be administered using either GUI tools (such as Enterprise Manager) or the vendor-provided stored procedures invoked using SQL statements. Here s a list of the components of the security architecture: Login This is a user account on the SQL Server, also called a user login. It is created using a GUI tool such as Enterprise Manager or the sp_addlogin stored procedure supplied with the DBMS. The SQL Server login is not the same as any operating system account the user may have on the database server. However, on database servers running Microsoft Windows, the login can use Windows authentication, meaning the Windows operating system stores the credentials (login name and password) and authenticates users when they connect to the SQL Server. An obvious advantage to Windows authentication is that user access to the various SQL Servers in the enterprise can be centrally managed through the Windows account, rather than locally managed on each SQL Server. Note that once a login is de ned in the SQL Server, the database user may connect to the SQL Server, but a login alone does not give them access to any database information. There is, however, a master login called sa (system administrator) that, similar to root in Unix and Administrator in Microsoft Windows, has full privileges to everything in the SQL Server environment. Figure 8-1 shows only one user login, called Mgr125. Database A database is a logical collection of database objects (tables, views, indexes, and so on) as de ned by the database designer. Figure 8-1 shows two databases: Employees and Products. It is important to understand that a login is allowed to connect to a database only after it has been granted that privilege by an administrator. (See the User topic that follows.) In addition to databases holding system data, some special databases are created when the SQL Server is created (not shown in Figure 8-1) and are used by the DBMS to manage the SQL Server. Among these are the following databases: master The master database contains system-level information, initialization settings, con guration settings, login accounts, the list of databases con gured in the SQL Server, and the location of primary database data les. tempdb The tempdb database contains temporary tables and temporary stored procedures. model The model database contains a template for all other databases created on the system. msdb In Microsoft SQL Server databases only, the msdb database contains information used for scheduling jobs and alerts.
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