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With all databases, you want to avoid giving database users more privileges than they need to do their job. This not only prevents errors made by humans from becoming data disasters (including those errors contained in the application programs and database queries they write), but it also keeps people honest. In Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server, you want to avoid having database users connect as the sa user. You want to create database logins that have the minimal privileges required. Sadly, this is often not done, and applications connect as sa or to a database with a user account that has the DBO (database owner) or DBA (database administrator) role. Roles are a collection of privileges and are discussed in an upcoming section. Whether done out of lack of understanding or out of laziness, this practice represents a huge security exposure that should be forbidden as a matter of policy. In Figure 8-2, note that the Mgr125 user owns no tables but does have some privileges granted to it by the Employees and Products users. This is to work around a fundamental challenge with Oracle s security architecture. If you allowed a database user to connect to the database using a user such as Employees or Products, the user would automatically have full privileges to every object in the schema, including insert, delete, and update against any table, and also the ability to create and alter tables without restriction. This is fundamentally the same issue as allowing use of the sa user or the DBO and DBA roles in Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server. The Mgr125 user mimics the behavior of the login with the same name shown in Figure 8-1. With the right system privileges, you can prevent the Mgr125 user in Oracle from being able to create any tables of its own. You may have noticed the synonyms for user Mgr125 in Figure 8-2. A synonym is merely an alias or nickname for a database object. The synonyms are for the convenience of the user so that names do not have to be quali ed with their schema name. To select from the T1 tables in the Employees schema directly, user Mgr125
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would have to refer to the table name as Employees.T1 in the SQL statement. This is not only inconvenient, but also can cause no end to problems if you ever decide to change the name of the Employees user. By creating a synonym called T1 in the Mgr125 schema that points to Employees.T1, the user may now refer to the table as just T1 . Incidentally, you may recall that all user and object names in Oracle are case insensitive, so the use of mixed case here is only for illustration. The syntax for creating this synonym is as follows:
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CREATE SYNONYM T1 FOR EMPLOYEES.T1;
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A role is a named collection of privileges that can, in turn, be granted to one or more users. Most RDBMS systems have prede ned roles that come with the system, and database users with the CREATE ROLE privilege may create their own. Roles have the following advantages: Roles may exist before user accounts do. For example, you can create a role that contains all the privileges required to work on a particular development project. When a new hire joins the project team, one GRANT statement gives their new user account all the permissions they need. Roles relieve the administrator of a lot of tedium. Many privileges may be granted with a single command when a role is used. Roles survive when user accounts are dropped. In cases where the DBA must drop and re-create a user account, it can be a lot of work to reinstate all the privileges, which is simpli ed if all the privileges are assembled into one role. The only potential disadvantage of roles, especially prede ned ones, is that they can be granted without suf cient attention to all the privileges contained in them, thereby giving a user more privileges than the minimum they need. For example, the CONNECT role in Oracle includes CREATE SESSION and ALTER SESSION, as you would expect, but it also includes CREATE CLUSTER, CREATE DATABASE LINK, CREATE SEQUENCE, CREATE SYNONYM, CREATE TABLE, and CREATE VIEW. This is probably a more powerful collection than you would want a business user of the database to have, so it might be better to grant CREATE SESSION instead.
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