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SQL Demysti ed
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For administrators, a common role is DBA, which conveys a lot of powerful privileges (over 125 separate privileges in Oracle). Obviously, such a high-powered privilege must be granted judiciously.
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Administering Roles in Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server
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Many SQL implementations use the SQL standard CREATE ROLE statement to establish roles, and the GRANT statement to assign the privileges contained in a role to a user. However, Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server have a proprietary solution that requires the use of vendor-supplied stored procedures to invoke role-based security. Roles are created using the sp_addrole stored procedure. The stored procedure sp_droprole may subsequently be used to drop the role. The general syntax for the stored procedure is
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sp_addrole 'rolename' [,'ownername']
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The rolename parameter assigns a name to the role, which must be unique among all user and role names in the current database. The optional ownername parameter speci es the owner of the role, with a default of dbo (the database owner user account). Here are two statements that add roles for the manager of the video store and the clerks who work in the store:
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sp_addrole 'manager' sp_addrole 'clerk'
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Privileges are granted to the role using a standard GRANT statement. In the following examples, note how the same privileges can be granted to multiple roles when that ts the needs of the business, but at the same time, different privileges can be granted when required.
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GRANT TO GRANT TO GRANT TO SELECT ON MPAA_RATING manager, clerk; SELECT ON MOVIE clerk; SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON MOVIE manager;
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Roles are assigned to database users using the vendor supplied sp_addrolemember stored procedure. The stored procedure sp_droprolemember can be used to remove a user from a role. The general syntax for sp_addrolemember is
sp_addrolemember 'rolename','username'
The rolename parameter speci es that role to which the user is to be assigned. The username parameter speci es the database user account that is to be assigned the privileges contained in the role.
Administering Roles in Oracle
The SQL standard speci es the CREATE ROLE statement to be used for the creation of roles. The DROP ROLE statement can be used to subsequently drop the role if necessary. You must have the CREATE ROLE privilege to run the statement, which usually means that you must be a high-powered user in Oracle, such as SYSTEM. The general syntax of the CREATE ROLE statement is
CREATE ROLE rolename [options];
The rolename provides the name of the new role. The options provide optional security speci cations for the new role. Here are two statements that add roles for the manager of the video store and the clerks who work in the store:
CREATE ROLE manager; CREATE ROLE clerk;
As with Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase Adaptive Server, privileges are granted to the role using a standard GRANT statement. In the following examples, note how the same privileges can be granted to multiple roles when that ts the needs of the business, but at the same time, different privileges can be granted when required.
GRANT TO GRANT TO GRANT TO SELECT ON MPAA_RATING manager, clerk; SELECT ON MOVIE clerk; SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON MOVIE manager;
SQL Demysti ed
Roles are assigned to database users using the standard GRANT statement. The syntax follows the same general syntax for the GRANT statement as described earlier in this chapter.
Using Views to Implement Column and Row Level Security
One of the common security issues to be addressed is how to allow database users access to some rows and columns in a table while preventing access to other rows and columns. Views are an excellent way to accomplish this. Here are some of the bene ts of using views to accomplish security objectives: Columns that a database user does not require may be omitted from the view. Assuming the user has been granted access to the view rather than the underlying table, this method totally prevents them from seeing the information in the columns that were omitted from the view. A WHERE clause may be included in the view to limit returned rows. Joins may be included to match to other tables as a way of limiting rows. For example, the view could limit Product table rows to only those products for a Division ID that matches the division in which the employee works. Joins to lookup tables can be used to replace code values in a table with their corresponding descriptions. A lookup table typically contains a list of code values (for example, department codes, transaction codes, status codes) and their descriptions, and it s used to look up the descriptions for the codes. Although this is a minor point, employees trying to hack database records during fraud attempts have a much more dif cult time if they cannot see the codes used to categorize the transactions. Furthermore, employees trying to do their best usually have a better time reading and understanding code descriptions than the corresponding code values. There are other ways to accomplish these objectives, however. Many modern RDBMSs, including Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server, have provisions for column-level security wherein a DBA may grant access by table column. For row-level restrictions, a feature called Virtual Private Database, available in Oracle starting with version 9i, can be used to accomplish the objective. Finally, some prefer to use stored procedures for all database access and thus use custom programming to control all database access.
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