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Windows NT Performance Monitor is installed by default with all Windows NT and Windows 2000 installations. Clicking the Performance Monitor icon in the Administrative Tools program group will start the program. By default, you ll be presented with a blank Chart view, which includes no specific information. Performance Monitor includes many counters and objects with which you can monitor certain aspects of system performance. Counters are general aspects of the system that can be monitored (for example, memory or a processor). Objects are the actual details you wish to track for the selected object (such as bytes committed or processor utilization). To add a counter to the default view, click the Add button and view the various options:
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In the Add to Chart dialog box, you can click the Explain button to see more information about each of the available options. Depending on the types of counters you select, you may have an option for choosing one or more instances. For example, on a dual-processor server, you can choose to monitor data for one or both processors. Table 3-5 lists and describes some of the most useful measurements.
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Item Monitored Number of times/second that the memory subsystem had to get information from the hard disk Percentage of free space per volume or per all volumes Number of tasks that had to wait for disk-based data Amount of data transferred by this server Number of active processes on this server Percentage of the total network bandwidth in use Rejected requests for data transfer
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Usefulness* If sustained greater than 5, you may want to consider a RAM upgrade.
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A value of less than 10% indicates additional storage space is needed. If high, disk performance may not be sufficient. High values indicate many and/or large file transfers to and from the server. Indicates current activity; used to compare loads on different machines. If sustained greater than 40%, performance may be decreasing. Large file transfers may be occurring to/from this server.
Physical Disk Avg. Disk Queue Length Server Bytes Total/sec
Server Sessions
Network Segment Redirector
% Network Utilization Reads/Writes denied/sec
*These guidelines should be taken as generalizations for sustained levels. It is common for pages/second, for example, to go above the recommended value for short periods of time.
Table 3-5.
Useful Performance Monitor Counters
Data Protection in Windows NT/2000
w s s v
Chart Alert Log Report
Graphs real-time system parameters over time. Provides notification when certain criteria are met or exceeded. Records performance information for detecting trends over time. Displays real-time data in column format.
Chart View
Chart view shows performance information in a graphical format. Figure 3-26 shows a typical chart generated by Windows NT s Performance Monitor. The X axis (horizontal) of the graph represents time. The Y axis (vertical) represents the measured performance values. To add information to a chart, select Edit | Add to Chart. You can then choose an object, a counter, and an instance to monitor. Additionally, you can select a color, scale, width, and style for the chart item. The scale is a multiplier that can alter the range of values displayed on the Y axis of the graph. For most scenarios, the default values will be appropriate, but you can change the multiplier based on what you are monitoring. For example, the default for the number interrupts/sec counter (part of the processor object) uses a multiplier of 0.01, giving the Y axis a range of 0 to 10,000. If you rarely have a high Number of Interrupts/second value, you can change the multiplier to 0.1 to more accurately view the information collected. Finally, you can configure more options by selecting Options | Chart. From there, you can modify display settings and set the update interval (which is set to 1.000 seconds by default).
Specifically, relating to data protection, you ll want to look at the Windows NT Performance Monitor Logical and Physical Disk objects. The objects and counters that are available are based on the services and applications installed on the local machine. For example, if you have RAS installed, you will see the RAS Port and RAS Total counters. These counters help you determine the current situation of your remote access users. Microsoft ships Windows NT with basic performance counters enabled. For most systems administrators, these defaults are all that is needed. If you require more specific information, however, you can also enable other counters and objects. For example, to measure disk performance, you need to specifically turn on disk performance logging. To do this, you must go to a command prompt and type diskperf -ye (the y flag activates disk performance monitoring, and the e flag specifies performance monitoring for stripe set volumes). This change will take effect the next time you reboot the system. This option isn t enabled by default, because keeping track of disk performance information creates a slight decrease in performance (Microsoft estimates less than 5 percent in most cases). Whether or not this slowdown is worth the additional information depends on your environment and the use of the server. To monitor various network performance values, you also need to add the SNMP service and Network Monitor Agent in the Network Control Panel applet. Chart view is only one way of viewing the information you are interested in monitoring. Performance Monitor offers four different views from which you can choose, depending on the type of data you want to collect and how you want to analyze and display this information:
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