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Although having access to a database server lets users log in, that alone does not give them the right to access information. The next step is to set permissions on logins to access one or more databases. A user must be added to a database before he or she can access any information in that database. There are two ways to add these permissions: To add database permissions when creating a login, do the following: 1. In the New Login dialog box, click the Database Access tab:
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2. Place a checkmark next to the database(s) the user should be able to access. 3. Optionally, you can assign database roles (described later) for these users.
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Alternatively, you can add existing database logins to a database by doing the following: 1. Expand the database for which you want to add users. 2. Right-click the Database Users folder and select New Database User. 3. Select a Login Name. You can use the login name as the username within the database, or you can assign a unique name. 4. Add the users to any existing database roles (described later).
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It s easier to assign permissions to groups of users who have similar functions than it is to manage individual accounts. The security architecture of SQL Server 7 includes roles to make assigning permissions easier. Roles work much like groups in Windows NT but are defined based on the specific function of an individual. For example, if you have several users who should be able to view but not modify employee records, you may want to create a role called Employee Record Viewers. Roles can also contain other roles. The overall process is to define roles, assign users to roles, and then grant permissions to these roles, as shown in Figure 4-12. SQL Server logins are mapped to database user accounts. The user accounts are then added to one or more roles and the roles themselves are granted specific object permissions.
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Types of Roles
SQL Server supports several different types of roles. Table 4-6 lists the different types of roles and describes the purpose of each.
Server Roles
At the server level, you ll need to delegate specific tasks. Many functions are required to keep a SQL Server database operational. Managing backups, logins, and security accounts are important concerns. For small installations, it is likely that a single individual will be responsible for all of these tasks. In larger environments, however, it is more desirable to assign specific tasks to specific users. For example, one database administrator may be in charge of creating and modifying user accounts for multiple servers, while another may be responsible for managing backups on all servers. SQL Server provides fixed, built-in server
Type of Role Fixed Server
Function Manages SQL Server configuration, including objects, alerts, tasks, and devices. Allows specific database functions. Includes all users with permissions to access a database. Provides group-based database-level permissions. Used by a single application.
Application Configuration and maintenance of the database server Configuration and maintenance of databases Providing default access permissions to any user who can access the database Granting specific permissions to groups of users Supporting applications that perform their own security control; requires a separate password
Fixed Database Public
User-Defined Database Application
Table 4-6.
SQL Server Role Types
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roles that have been created for making this process much easier. Table 4-7 lists the different server roles and their functions. By default, only the System Administrators role contains accounts. The members of this role include the Windows NT Administrators group and the SQL Server SA account. Also, note that members of each of the roles are allowed to assign the permissions of their role to another user account. For example, a user who is a member of the Setup Administrators role can add another user to this role. You can add user accounts to logins when they are created by accessing the Server Roles tab of the SQL Server Login Properties dialog box. To add existing logins to server roles, follow these steps: 1. In Enterprise Manager, expand the Security folder for the server you want to modify. 2. Double-click the name of a Server Role in the right panel and click Add. Highlight users to assign them to this role.
Role Database Creators Disk Administrators Process Administrators Security Administrators Server Administrators
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