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So far, we ve covered the steps that are necessary for creating server logins and databases. We also covered how you can use roles to simplify the administration of security. The final level of security and the most granular is at the actual level of SQL Server objects, such as tables, views, and stored procedures. For managing security on database objects and actions, SQL Server supports three types of permissions; these are listed in Table 4-9.
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Type of Permission Statement permissions Object permissions
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Associated Functions Creating and modifying databases Executing queries that display and modify database objects
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Predefined (role-based) permissions Tasks specific to fixed roles and object owners
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Table 4-9.
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Before user accounts and roles can be useful, you must assign them permissions on specific database objects. These permissions are called statement permissions because they control the types of commands that can be executed against database objects. The permissions possible for database objects are listed in Table 4-10. For more detailed security, you can also place Select and Update permissions on specific columns within a database object. All database users will be members of the Public role by default, and this membership cannot be changed. This role permits them to perform functions that do not require specific permissions and to access any database via the
Statement SELECT UPDATE INSERT DELETE
Types of Object Tables and views Tables and views Tables and views Tables and views
Function Reads data from an existing database row. Modifies data in an existing database row. Creates a new database row. Removes an existing row from a database. Allows users of other tables to refer to a key in the active table without having explicit permissions to view or modify that key directly. Causes statements to execute with the permissions of the stored procedure s owner, not the executing user account.
Declarative Tables Referential Integrity (DRI) Execute Stored Stored procedures Procedures
Table 4-10.
Statement Permissions
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Guest account (unless it is removed). You can define permissions by viewing either user information or database object information. To add or modify permissions for a specific database object, follow these steps: 1. Expand the database for which you want to modify permissions. 2. Expand the folder for the type of object you want to assign permissions (such as Views). 3. Right-click the name of an object and select Properties. 4. Click Permissions. You ll see this dialog box:
Here you can choose to list all users and roles, or just those who currently have access to the database. 5. Place a checkmark next to the permissions you want to grant to these database users. The meanings of the possible settings are listed here: Setting Grant Deny Revoke Symbol Checkmark Red X Blank Meaning The user has permissions. The user does not have permissions. Unspecified. (The user can inherit permissions.)
To modify permissions on a per-user basis, double-click a username in the Database Users folder within a database. Click Permissions to view the security settings for this user. In general, permissions are additive. That is, if a user is a member of one group that is allowed SELECT permissions and another that is allowed INSERT and DELETE permis-
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sions, he or she will effectively have all three of these rights. However, if a user is a member of any group that is explicitly denied permissions to a resource, this setting overrides any other permissions. In this case, the user will not be able to perform the action until he or she is removed from the group that is denied access. Permissions can also be set with the GRANT, REVOKE, and DENY statements using a SQL query tool. By default, the sysadmin, db_securityadmin, and db_owner roles have permissions to perform these functions. All permissions information is stored in the sysprotects system table. When a user executes a query or transaction, SQL Server checks for appropriate permissions in this table. Permissions are cumulative, unless they are specifically denied. For example, if John is a member of Group 1 (which has Select permissions) and Group 2 (which has Update permissions), he will be able to perform both functions. However, if he is also a member of Group 3 (which has Denied Select permissions), he will be unable to query information from the object. In this case, he will receive an error message stating that he does not have sufficient permissions to execute the query or transaction.
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