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Relational Database Concepts and the SQL Server Environment
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resultsets in the form of text or a table. More sophisticated tools have forms, reports, and other user-friendly screen objects. To physically establish a connection with a database server and transfer requests and resultsets, client applications can use different data access objects or data access APIs. The most common such objects are ADO (ActiveX Database Objects), RDO (Remote Database Objects), DB-Library, ODBC, OLE DB, and DAO (Database Access Objects). Application developers use these objects, or APIs, to access database objects and data stored in them and to develop client applications in programming languages such as Visual Basic, Java, ASP, C, and C++. This system architecture is the simplest one. The client side of such a system contains a user interface, presentation services, business services (the part of the application that implements business rules), and data servicess (the part of the system responsible for accessing the data storage). Data storage (usually a database) is located on the server. Since the components of the system are stored in two tiers one on a workstation and the other on a server this architecture is often called two-tier architecture. Because the business logic in this case is stored on the client side (workstation), this variation of two-tier architecture is often called fat client architecture:
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SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
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Unfortunately, such systems have many performance, security, deployment, and management issues. Some of these issues can be resolved by implementing part of the business services on the server for example, in the form of stored procedures. Such architecture is sometimes called fat server or two-and-a-half-tier architecture:
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To further improve the system, application architects can use three-tier architecture, in which data, business, and presentation services are strictly divided into different components, or tiers:
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Relational Database Concepts and the SQL Server Environment
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It is also possible to further divide application services, in which case it is called multitier or n-tier architecture:
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This architecture is especially convenient for Web applications, since such applications must be able to scale to thousands of users, and deployment and management requirements on such a level are very strict. The following diagram shows one variant of such architecture:
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SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
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What Are Stored Procedures
Stored procedures are database objects that encapsulate collections of Transact-SQL statements on the server for later repetitive use. Although stored procedures use nonprocedural Transact-SQL statements, they are in essence procedural. They define algorithms that determine how operations should be performed. Stored procedures are the TSQL equivalents of subroutines in other programming languages. Developers of custom database applications can use all major programming constructs while building stored procedures:
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Variables Datatypes Input/output parameters Return values Conditional execution Loops Comments
SQL Server includes a set of system stored procedures designed for administering the system. Their role is to provide information, set configuration, control the environment, manage user-defined objects, and schedule and run custom tasks.
SQL SERVER 2000 TOOLS
All versions of SQL Server except SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (or MSDE) are delivered with the following management tools:
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Service Manager Enterprise Manager Query Analyzer DTS Import/Export Data
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Relational Database Concepts and the SQL Server Environment
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osql isql Profiler Client Network Utility
Service Manager
The SQL Server database server is implemented as the following services:
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MSSQLServer SQLServerAgent MSDTC SQL Mail and SQLAgentMail
The RDBMS is actually implemented as the MSSQLServer service. It receives queries from users, executes them, sends responses to calling applications, and manages data in database files. SQLServerAgent is an automation service that manages the scheduled execution of tasks and notifies administrators of problems that occur on the server. MSDTC (Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator) is a service that manages two-phase commit transactions spanned over multiple servers. This service ensures that changes that need to be made to data stored on different servers complete successfully. SQL Mail is used to send and receive e-mail. It is possible to configure SQL Server to perform such tasks as receiving requests and returning resultsets through e-mail to notify administrators of the success status of scheduled tasks and encountered errors. SQLServerAgent also has mail capabilities, but does not use the SQL Mail service. Instead, it uses the SQLAgentMail component to send notifications. These services are available only on the Standard or Enterprise Edition of SQL Server. On Windows NT Server and Windows 2000 Server, MSSQLServer, SQLServerAgent, and MSDTC services can be started or stopped, as
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