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Revoke Statement The Revoke statement is used to deactivate statements that have granted or denied permissions. It has the same syntax as the Grant and Deny statements (except that the keyword Revoke is used). It is easy to understand that permission can be removed using this statement. It is a little more challenging to understand how a
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Interaction with the SQL Server Environment
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permission can be granted by revoking it. Let s review an example in which a user JohnS is a member of the AssetOwners role, which has permission to insert, update, select, and delete records from the Inventory table.
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exec sp_addrolemember 'JohnS', 'AssetOwners'
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The Administrator then decides to deny JohnS permission to delete and update records from Inventory:
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After a while the administrator issues the following statement:
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In effect, this command has granted Update and Delete permission on the Inventory table to JohnS. Since the Revoke statement removes records from the sysprotects table in the current database, the effect of the Revoke statement is to return permissions to their original state. Naturally, this means that the user will not have access to the object (or statement). In that respect, its effect is similar to the Deny statement. However, there is a major difference between revoked and denied permissions: the Revoke statement does not prevent permissions from being granted in the future.
Synchronization of Login and User Names
In the section earlier in this chapter called Database Deployment, I mentioned the common problem of mismatches between users and logins when databases are copied from one server to another. The problem is a product of the fact that records in the sysusers table of the copied database point to the records in the syslogins table with matching loginid field. One solution is to create and manage a script that recreates logins and users on the new server after a database is copied.
SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
SQL Server also offers the sp_change_users_login procedure. You can use it to display mapping between user and login:
exec sp_change_users_login @Action = 'Report', @UserNamePattern = 'B%'
You can set a login manually for a single user:
exec sp_change_users_login @Action = 'Update_one', @UserNamePattern = 'TomB', @LoginName = 'TomB'
SQL Server can also match database users to logins with the same name:
exec sp_change_users_login @Action = 'Auto_Fix', @UserNamePattern = '%'
For each user, SQL Server tries to find a login with the same name and to set the login ID.
TIP: sp_change_users_login with Auto_Fix does a decent job, but the careful DBA should inspect the results of this operation.
Managing Application Security Using Stored Procedures, User-Defined Functions, and Views
When a permission is granted on a complex object like a stored procedure, a user-defined function, or a view, a user does not need to have permissions on the objects or statements inside it. We can illustrate this characteristic in the following example:
Create Database Test Go sp_addlogin @loginame = 'AnnS', @passwd = 'password', @defdb = 'test' GO
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Use Test Exec sp_grantdbaccess @loginame = 'AnnS', @name_in_db = 'AnnS' Go Create Table aTable( Id int identity(1,1), Description Varchar(20) ) Go Create Procedure ListATable as Select * from aTable go Create Procedure InsertATable @Desc varchar(20) as Insert Into aTable (Description) Values (@Desc) Go Deny Select, Insert, Update, Delete On Atable To Public Grant Execute On InsertATable To Public Grant Execute On ListATable To Public Go
SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
A table is created along with two stored procedures for viewing and inserting records into it. All database users are prevented from using the table directly but granted permission to use the stored procedures.
NOTE: All database users are automatically members of the Public role. Whatever is granted or denied to the Public role is automatically granted or denied to all database users.
After this script is executed, you can log in as AnnS in Query Analyzer and try to access the table directly and through stored procedures. Figure 11-4 illustrates such attempts.
Figure 11-4.
Stored procedures are accessible even when underlying objects are not
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Stored procedures, user-defined functions, and views are important tools for implementing sophisticated security solutions in a database. Each user should have permissions to perform activities tied to the business functions for which he or she is responsible and to view only related information. It is also easier to manage security in a database on a functional level than on the data level. Therefore, client applications should not be able to issue ad hoc queries against tables in a database. Instead, they should execute stored procedures. Users should be grouped in roles by the functionality they require, and roles should be granted execute permissions to related stored procedures. Since roles are stored only in the current database, using them helps you avoid problems that occur during the transfer of the database from the development to the production environment (see Database Deployment earlier in the chapter).
NOTE: There is one exception to the rule we have just described. If the owner of the stored procedure is not the owner of the database objects by the stored procedure, SQL Server will check the object s permissions on each underlying database object. Usually, this is not an issue because all objects are owned by dbo.
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