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Security does not have to be implemented on SQL Server. If the application is developed using three-tier architecture, objects can use roles, users, and other security features of Microsoft Transaction Server (on Windows NT) or Component Services (in Windows 2000) to implement security. Security is sometimes also implemented inside the client application. In both cases, database access is often accomplished through a single database login and user. Such a user is often called a proxy user.
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SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
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NOTE: The worst such solution occurs when the client application developer completely ignores SQL Server security and achieves database access using the sa login. I have seen two variants on this solution. One occurs when the developer hard-codes the sa password inside an application. The administrator is then prevented from changing the password and the security of the entire SQL Server is exposed. The other occurs when a developer stores login information in a file or Registry so that it can be changed later. Unfortunately, it can also be read by unauthorized persons, and again, SQL Server security is compromised.
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Managing Application Security Using Application Roles
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Application roles are a new feature that can be used in SQL Server 7.0 and SQL Server 2000. These are designed to implement security for particular applications. They are different from standard database roles in that
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Application roles require passwords to be activated. They do not have members. Users access a database via an application. The application contains the name of the role and its password. SQL Server ignores all other user permissions when the application role is activated.
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To create an application role, administrators should use sp_addapprole:
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Exec sp_addapprole @rolename = 'Accounting', @password = 'password'
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Permissions are managed using Grant, Deny, and Revoke statements in the usual manner. A client application (or a middle-tier object) should first log into SQL Server in the usual manner and then activate the application role using sp_setapprole:
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Exec sp_setapprole @rolename = 'Accounting', @password = 'password'
11:
Interaction with the SQL Server Environment
NOTE: Solutions based on application roles are good replacements for solutions based on proxy users. However, my recommendation is to use the solution described in Managing Application Security Using Stored Procedures, User-Defined Functions, and Views earlier in the chapter.
SUMMARY
The primary function of SQL Server is to serve clients with answers to their queries. However, it has become the norm in development environments to access programs and procedures implemented in other languages and installed in other environments. Earlier versions of SQL Server were able to run operating system commands and programs from the command shell and to return output in the form of a resultset. Extended stored procedures gave developers the opportunity to write and use code written in C to implement things that were not possible in Transact-SQL statements. One of the interesting new features in SQL Server is the ability to execute methods and use the properties of COM (OLE Automation) objects. This feature opens a whole new world to Transact-SQL code. It is possible to run complicated numeric calculations, notify administrators using graphics and/or sound, and initiate processes on other machines, to name but a few applications. We have also demonstrated in this chapter how to create such COM objects in Visual Basic. The standard ways that SQL Server uses to notify administrators of events that have occurred on a SQL Server is by pager and by e-mail. SQL Server can also receive and answer queries by e-mail. It is possible to set and use these features from Enterprise Manager, but in cases where more control is needed, developers can use system stored procedures and extended stored procedures. An important channel for communications with users and administrators today is the Web. SQL Server can create Web pages based on the contents of database tables or generated resultsets. SQL Server includes a wizard to generate common Web pages, but it
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