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SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
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The execution will return a resultset containing just one value in one record:
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EquipmentId ----------1 (1 row(s) affected)
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Stored procedures can return output parameters to the caller. To illustrate, we will create a stored procedure similar to the previous one, but having one critical difference: this new stored procedure contains an additional parameter. The direction of the parameter is controlled by setting the keyword Output behind a datatype:
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Create procedure prGetEqId_2 @Make varchar(50), @Model varchar(50), @EqId int Output as select @EqId = EquipmentId from Equipment where Make = @Make and Model = @Model
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The Select statement does not return a resultset as the previous one did. Instead, it assigns an @EqId output parameter with the selected value.
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NOTE: This stored procedure is not perfect. It might seem okay to you, but there is a potential problem with it. More than one piece of equipment (that is, more than one record) could correspond to the criteria. We will address this issue in detail in the chapters to follow.
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In this case, we require a more complicated batch of TransactSQL statements to execute the stored procedure. We must define the variable that will receive the output value. The parameter must be followed with the Output keyword in order to pass a value to the
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Stored Procedure Design Concepts
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variable. At the end of the batch, the result of the stored procedure is displayed using the Select statement:
Declare @intEqId int Execute prGetEqId_2 'Toshiba', 'Portege 7020CT', @intEqId output Select @intEqId 'Equipment Identifier'
The batch will return the value of the output parameter:
Equipment Identifier -------------------1 (1 row(s) affected)
Return Value
An alternative way to send values from a stored procedure to the caller is to use a return value. Each stored procedure can be finished with a Return statement. The statement can be followed with an integer value that can be read by the caller. If the return value is not explicitly set, the server will return the default value zero (0). Because return values are limited to integer datatypes, they are most often used to signal an error to the caller. We will examine this use later. First, let s explore its functionality on some unorthodox examples. In the following example, the result of the selection will be assigned to the local variable and finally returned to the caller:
Create Procedure prGetEqId_3 @Make varchar(50), @Model varchar(50) as Declare @intEqId int Select @intEqId from Equipment = EquipmentId
SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
where Make = @Make and Model = @Model Return @intEqId
The same functionality could be achieved even without a local variable, since a Return statement can accept an integer expression instead of an integer value:
Create Procedure prGetEqId_3 @Make varchar(50), @Model varchar(50) as Return (select EquipmentId from Equipment where Make = @Make and Model = @Model)
To execute the stored procedure and access the returned value, we require the following lines of code:
Declare @intEqId int Execute @intEqId = prGetEqId_3 'Toshiba', 'Portege 7020CT' Select @intEqId 'Equipment Identifier'
Notice the difference in assigning a value. The local variable must be inserted before the name of the stored procedure. The result of the batch is the returned value:
Equipment Identifier -------------------1 (1 row(s) affected)
This solution, however, is not a perfect way to transfer information from a stored procedure to a caller. In the first place, it is limited by datatype. Only integers can be returned this way (including int, smallint, and tinyint). This method is used primarily to return status information to the caller:
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Create Procedure prGetEqId_2 @Make varchar(50), @Model varchar(50), @EqId int output As select @EqId = EquipmentId from Equipment where Make = @Make and Model = @Model Return @@Error
In this example, the stored procedure will potentially return an error code. @@Error is a global variable, which contains an error number in the case of failure or a zero in the case of success. To execute the stored procedure, use the following code:
Declare @intEqId int, @intStatusCode int Execute @intStatusCode = prGetEqId_2 'Toshiba', 'Portege 7020CT', @intEqId output Select @intEqId result, @intStatusCode ErrorCode
The result will look like this:
result 1 ErrorCode 0 ----------- -----------
(1 row(s) affected)
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