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Data Definition Language (DDL) is that part of Transact-SQL dedicated to the creation of database objects. For internal reasons,
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SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
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some DDL statements must stand alone in the batch, including the following statements:
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Create Procedure Create Trigger Create Default Create Rule Create View Set Showplan_Text Set Showplan_All
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If these statements are combined with other statements in a batch, the batch will fail.
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During compilation, the batch is converted into a single execution plan. For this reason, the batch must be self-sufficient. In the real world, this concept has vast implications for the scope of database objects, variables, and comments. Scope of Objects Some DDL statements can be inside batches together with other commands, but keep in mind that the resulting object will not be accessible until the batch is completed. For example, it is not possible to add new columns to the table and to access those new columns in the same batch. Therefore, the following batch will fail:
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Alter Table Part ADD Cost money NULL select PartId, Cost from Part Go
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The Select statement is not able to access the Cost column, and the whole batch will fail:
Server: Msg 207, Level 16, State 3, Line 1 Invalid column name 'Cost'.
Therefore, the batch has to be divided in two:
6:
Composite Transact-SQL Constructs Batches, Scripts, and Transactions
Alter Table Part ADD Cost money NULL Go Select PartId, Cost from Part Go
However, a workaround with the Execute statement will not work either:
Exec ('ALTER TABLE Part ADD Cost money NULL') Select PartId, Cost from Part Go
Scope of Variables All (local) variables referenced in a batch must also be declared in that batch. The following code will result in the failure of the second batch:
Declare @Name as varchar (50) Go Select @Name = 'Dejan' Go
Scope of Comments Comments must be started and finished within the same batch. Ignoring this requirement will result in some very interesting outcomes, because Go commands are preprocessed on the client side, before the code is sent to the server. Take a look at the comment in the following sample:
Select * From Part Go Update Part Set Type = 'desktop' Where Type = 'PC' /* Go Update Part Set Type = 'Notebook' Where Type = 'Laptop' Go
SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
Select * from Part Go Update Part Set Type = 'desktop' Where Type = 'computer' Go */ Select * from Part Go
To developers of other programming languages, this might look perfectly legal. Query Analyzer will even change the color of the code that is commented out. Unfortunately, this code is a complete disaster. Due to errors, the server will cancel execution of parts that the user expects to run and execute other parts that are commented out:
PartId 1 Make Toshiba Model Portege 7020CT Type Laptop ----------- ------------- ----------------- -----------------(1 row(s) affected) Server: Msg 113, Level 15, State 1, Line 2 Missing end comment mark '*/'. (1 row(s) affected) PartId 1 Make Toshiba Model Portege 7020CT Type Notebook
----------- ------------- ----------------- -----------------(1 row(s) affected) Server: Msg 170, Level 15, State 1, Line 4 Line 4: Incorrect syntax near '/'.
Query Analyzer will ignore the comments and send everything between the Go commands as separate batches.
6:
Composite Transact-SQL Constructs Batches, Scripts, and Transactions
The first batch is the only batch that behaves in accordance with the administrator s intention. The second batch fails because the comments are not complete:
Update Part Set Type = 'desktop' Where Type = 'PC' /*
The third batch is executed because the server is not aware of the administrator s intention to comment it out:
Update Part Set Type = 'Notebook' Where Type = 'Laptop'
The fourth batch is also executed, because the server is not aware of the administrator s intention to comment it out:
Select * from Part
The fifth batch is also executed:
Update Part Set Type = 'desktop' Where Type = 'computer'
The last batch fails:
*/ Select * from Part
TIP: Comments must be started and finished within the same batch.
If the administrator wants to comment out the Go command, he must use two dashes as a comment marker at the beginning of the row:
--Go
SQL Server 2000 Stored Procedure Programming
SCRIPTS
A script is usually defined as a collection of Transact-SQL statements (in one or more batches) in the form of an external file. Client tools, such as Query Analyzer, isql, osql, and Enterprise Manager, usually have support for managing script files. Scripts are usually stored in plain text files with a .sql extension. This makes them manageable from any text editor as well as from many sophisticated tools, such as the Microsoft application for code control, Visual SourceSafe. Query Analyzer has the usual features (File | Open, Save) of any text editor. isql and osql are command line utilities that allow the user to specify script files with code to be executed against the server.
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