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4 discussed primary keys, foreign keys, and the parent/child relationships that they create between tables. Figure 11-1 shows the SALESREPS and OFFICES tables and illustrates once again how foreign keys and primary keys work. The OFFICE column is the primary key for the OFFICES table, and it uniquely identifies each row. The REP_OFFICE column in the SALESREPS table is a foreign key for the OFFICES table. It identifies the office where each salesperson is assigned. The REP_OFFICE and OFFICE columns create a parent/child relationship between the OFFICES and SALESREPS rows. Each OFFICES (parent) row has zero or more SALESREPS (child) rows with matching office numbers. Similarly, each SALESREPS (child) row has exactly one OFFICES (parent) row with a matching office number. Suppose you tried to insert a new row into the SALESREPS table that contained an invalid office number, as in this example:
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INSERT INTO SALESREPS (EMPL_NUM, NAME, REP_OFFICE, AGE, HIRE_DATE, SALES) VALUES (115, 'George Smith', 31, 37, '2008-04-01', 0.00);
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On the surface, there s nothing wrong with this INSERT statement. In fact, some SQL implementations will successfully add the row. The database will show that George Smith works in office number 31, even though no office number 31 is listed in the OFFICES table. The newly inserted row clearly breaks the parent/child relationship between the OFFICES and SALESREPS tables. In fact, the office number in the INSERT statement is probably an error the user may have intended office number 11, 21, or 13.
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FIGURE 11-1
A foreign key/primary key reference
Part III:
Updating Data
It seems clear that every legal value in the REP_OFFICE column should be forced to match some value that appears in the OFFICE column. This rule is known as a referential integrity constraint. It ensures the integrity of the parent/child relationships created by foreign keys and primary keys. Referential integrity has been a key part of the relational model since it was first proposed by E. F. Codd. However, referential integrity constraints were not included in IBM s prototype System/RDBMS, nor in early releases of DB2 or SQL/DS. IBM added referential integrity support to DB2 in 1989, and referential integrity was added to the SQL standard after the release of the initial (SQL1) version. Most DBMS vendors today support referential integrity constraints.
Referential Integrity Problems
Four types of database updates can corrupt the referential integrity of the parent/child relationships in a database. Using the OFFICES and SALESREPS tables in Figure 11-1 as illustrations, the four update situations are the following: Inserting a new child row When an INSERT statement adds a new row to the child (SALESREPS) table, its foreign key (REP_OFFICE) value must match one of the primary key (OFFICE) values in the parent table (OFFICES). If the foreign key value does not match any primary key, inserting the row will corrupt the database, because there will be a child without a parent (an orphan). Note that inserting a row in the parent table never poses a problem; it simply becomes a parent without any children. Updating the foreign key in a child row This is a different form of the previous problem. If the foreign key (REP_OFFICE) is modified by an UPDATE statement, the new value must match a primary key (OFFICE) value in the parent (OFFICES) table. Otherwise, the updated row will be an orphan. Deleting a parent row If a row of the parent table (OFFICES) that has one or more children (in the SALESREPS table) is deleted, the child rows will become orphans. The foreign key (REP_OFFICE) values in these rows will no longer match any primary key (OFFICE) value in the parent table. Note that deleting a row from the child table never poses a problem; the parent of this row simply has one less child after the deletion. Updating the primary key in a parent row This is a different form of the previous problem. If the primary key (OFFICE) of a row in the parent table (OFFICES) is modified, all of the current children of that row become orphans because their foreign keys no longer match a primary key value. The referential integrity features of the ANSI/ISO SQL standard handle each of these four situations. The first problem (INSERT into the child table) is handled by checking the values of the foreign key columns before the INSERT statement is permitted. If they don t match a primary key value, the INSERT statement is rejected with an error message. In Figure 11-1, this means that before a new salesperson can be added to the SALESREPS table, the office to which the salesperson is assigned must already be in the OFFICES table. As you can see, this restriction makes sense in the sample database.
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