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PLACES
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PART IV
Database
Database
Catalogs that describe the structure of the database. SQL1-style database schemas are contained within these catalogs. Database data, which is managed by the DBMS software, accessed by the users through the programs, and whose structure is described in the catalogs. Although the standard conceptually describes the data as outside of the catalog structure, it s common to think of data as being contained in a table that is in a schema, which is in a catalog.
Part IV:
Database Structure
Tables Catalog ABC Schema X Users Schema Y Joe Bill Catalog DEF Schema X Program modules Mary
DBMS Software
Schema Z
FIGURE 13-13
SQL standard database structure
Catalogs
Within a SQL-environment, the database structure is defined by one or more named catalogs. The word catalog in this case is used in the same way that it has historically been used on mainframe systems to describe a collection of objects (usually files). On minicomputer and personal computer systems, the concept is roughly analogous to a directory. In the case of a SQL standard database, the catalog is a collection of named database schemas. The catalog also contains a set of system tables (confusingly, often called the system catalog) that describes the structure of the database. The catalog is thus a selfdescribing entity within the database. This characteristic of catalogs (which is provided by all major SQL products) is described in detail in 16. The SQL standard describes the role of the catalog and specifies that a SQL-environment may contain one or more (actually zero or more) catalogs, each of which must have a distinct name. It explicitly says that the mechanism for creating and destroying catalogs is implementation-defined. The standard also says that the extent to which a DBMS allows access across catalogs is implementation defined. Specifically, whether a single SQL statement can access data from multiple catalogs, whether a single SQL transaction can span multiple catalogs, or even whether a single user session with the DBMS can cross catalog boundaries are all implementation-defined characteristics. The standard says that when a user or program first establishes contact with a SQL-environment, one of its catalogs is identified as the default catalog for the session. (Again, the way in which this catalog is selected is implementation-defined.) During the course of a session, the default catalog can be changed with the SET CATALOG statement.
13:
Creating a Database
Schemas
The schema is the key high-level container for objects in a SQL database structure. A schema is a named entity within the database and includes the definitions for the following: Tables Along with their associated structures (columns, primary and foreign keys, table constraints, and so on), tables remain the basic building blocks of a database in a schema. Views These are virtual tables, derived from the actual tables defined in the schema, as described in 14. Domains These function like extended data types for defining columns within the tables of the schema, as described in 11. Assertions These database integrity constraints restrict the data relationships across tables within the schema, as described earlier in the section Assertions. Privileges Database privileges control the capabilities that are given to various users to access and update data in the database and to modify the database structure. The SQL security scheme created by these privileges is described in 14. Character sets Databases support international languages and manage the representation of non-Roman characters in those languages (for example, the diacritical accent marks used by many European languages or the 2-byte representations of the word-symbols used in many Asian languages) through character sets defined by the schema. Collations These work hand-in-hand with character sets, defining the sorting sequence for a character set. Translations These control how text data is converted from one character set to another and how comparisons are made of text data from different character sets. A schema is created with the CREATE SCHEMA statement, shown in Figure 13-14. Here is a simple schema definition for the basic two-table schema for Joe shown in Figure 13-12:
CREATE SCHEMA CREATE TABLE (NAME AGE CREATE TABLE (CITY STATE GRANT ON TO GRANT ON TO JSCHEMA AUTHORIZATION JOE PEOPLE VARCHAR(30), INTEGER) PLACES VARCHAR(30), VARCHAR(30)) ALL PRIVILEGES PEOPLE PUBLIC SELECT PLACES MARY;
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