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FIGURE 15-2
User-id assignments for the sample database
the difficulty in tracing individual actions back to the individual who performed them. An alternative to this practice is presented in the Role-Based Security section later in this chapter. The ANSI/ISO SQL standard uses the term authorization-id instead of user-id, and you will occasionally find this term used in other SQL documentation. Technically, authorization-id is a more accurate term because the role of the ID is to determine authorization or privileges in the database. There are situations, as in Figure 15-2, where the same user-id might be assigned to different users. In other situations, a single person may use two or three different user-ids, but usually not in the same database. In a commercial database, authorization-ids may be associated with programs and groups of programs, rather than with human users. In each of these situations, authorization-id is a more precise and less confusing term than user-id. However, the most common practice is to assign a different user-id to each person, and most SQL-based DBMSs use the term user-id in their documentation.
User Authentication
The SQL standard specifies that user-ids provide database security; however, the specific mechanism for associating a user-id with a SQL statement is outside the scope of the standard because a database can be accessed in many different ways. For example, when you type SQL statements into an interactive SQL utility, how does the DBMS determine which user-id is associated with the statements If you use a forms-based data entry or query program, how does the DBMS determine your user-id On a database server, a report-generating program might be scheduled to run at a preset time every evening; what is the user-id in this situation, where there is no human user Finally, how are user-ids handled when you access a database across a network, where your user-id on the system you are actively working from might be different from the user-id established on the system where the database resides
15:
SQL Security
Most commercial SQL implementations associate a user-id with each database session. In interactive SQL, the session begins when you start the interactive SQL program, and it lasts until you exit the program or use a command to switch to another user-id. In an application program using programmatic SQL, the session begins when the application program connects to the DBMS, and it ends when the application program terminates. All of the SQL statements used during the session are associated with the user-id specified for the session. However, in modern application systems, it is also possible for an application program to establish multiple connections to a database and to select the one to be used as it submits SQL statements for processing. Usually, you must supply both a user-id and an associated password to establish a connection. The DBMS checks the password to verify that you are, in fact, authorized to use the user-id that you supply. However, many products support operating system authentication where the DBMS accepts user credentials passed to it by the operating system without the need for a password or other authentication. Although user-ids and passwords are common across most SQL products, the specific techniques used to specify the user-id and password vary from one product to another. Some DBMS brands, especially those that are available on many different operating system platforms, implement their own user-id/password security. For example, when you use Oracle s interactive SQL program, called SQLPLUS, you specify a user name and associated password in the command that starts the program, like this:
SQLPLUS SCOTT/TIGER
However, typing your password on a command line is not recommended, because the password is not encrypted and can be easily exposed by anyone else on the system. It is far better to omit the password (and the separating slash) and let SQLPLUS prompt you for the password. The Sybase interactive SQL program, called ISQL, also accepts a user name and password, using this command format:
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