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FIGURE 15-3
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implementing SQL security is limited by the two fundamental restrictions described earlier in 14: Update restrictions The SELECT privilege can be used with read-only views to limit data retrieval, but the INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE privileges are meaningless for these views. If a user must update the data visible in a read-only view, the user must be given permission to update the underlying tables and must use INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE statements that reference those tables. Performance Any poorly written SQL query can add significant overhead to database operations, and of course this can be true of queries included in view definitions. However, database users may reference views without considering the complexity of the underlying accesses against the source tables. Views cannot be used indiscriminately to restrict database access without regard for the overall performance implications of the queries within them.
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SELECT INSERT DELETE UPDATE
105 109 106 104 101 103
Bill Adams Mary Jones Sam Clark Bob Smith Dan Roberts Paul Cruz
SALESREPS Table
EMPL_NUM NAME 105 109 102 106 104 101 110 108 103 107 Bill Adams Mary Jones Sue Smith Sam Clark Bob Smith Dan Roberts Tom Snyder Larry Fitch Paul Cruz Nancy Angelli
No access No access
WESTREPS View
EMPL_NUM NAME
SELECT INSERT DELETE UPDATE
102 Sue Smith 108 Larry Fitch 107 Nancy Angelli
FIGURE 15-4
Using views to restrict row access
Granting Privileges (GRANT)
The basic GRANT statement, shown in Figure 15-5, is used to grant security privileges on database objects to specific users or roles. Normally, the GRANT statement is used by the owner of a table or view to give other users access to the data. As shown in the figure, the GRANT statement includes a specific list of the privileges to be granted, the name of the table or other object to which the privileges apply (an object type is required for all objects except tables and views), and the user-id or role to which the privileges are granted. In most SQL implementations, user accounts must exist before privileges can be granted to them. The GRANT statement shown in the syntax diagram conforms to the ANSI/ISO SQL standard. Many DBMS brands follow the DB2 GRANT statement syntax, which is more flexible. The DB2 syntax allows you to specify a list of user-ids and a list of object names, making it simpler to grant many privileges at once. Here are some examples of simple GRANT statements for the sample database: Give order-processing users full access to the ORDERS table.
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE ON ORDERS TO OPUSER;
15:
SQL Security
object-name object-type
user-id
FIGURE 15-5
The GRANT statement syntax diagram
Let accounts receivable users retrieve customer data and add new customers to the CUSTOMERS table, but give order-processing users read-only access.
GRANT SELECT, INSERT ON CUSTOMERS TO ARUSER; GRANT SELECT ON CUSTOMERS TO OPUSER;
PART IV
Allow Sam Clark to insert or delete an of ce.
GRANT INSERT, DELETE ON OFFICES TO SAM;
For convenience, the GRANT statement provides two shortcuts that you can use when granting many privileges or when granting privileges to many users. Instead of specifically listing all of the privileges available for a particular object, you can use the keywords ALL PRIVILEGES. This GRANT statement gives Sam Clark, the vice president of sales, full access to the SALESREPS table: Give all privileges on the SALESREPS table to Sam Clark.
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON SALESREPS TO SAM;
Part IV:
Database Structure
Instead of giving privileges to every user of the database one-by-one, you can use the keyword PUBLIC to grant a privilege to every database user authorized to connect to the database. Obviously, this option must be used judiciously. This GRANT statement lets anyone retrieve data from the OFFICES table: Give all users SELECT access to the OFFICES table.
GRANT SELECT ON OFFICES TO PUBLIC;
Note that this statement grants access to all present and future authorized users, not just to the user-ids currently known to the DBMS. This eliminates the need for you to explicitly grant privileges to new users as they are authorized to connect to the database.
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