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The SQL1 standard allowed you to grant the UPDATE privilege for individual columns of a table or view, and newer versions allow a column list for SELECT, INSERT, and REFERENCES privileges as well. The columns are listed after the SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, or REFERENCES keyword and enclosed in parentheses. Here is a GRANT statement that allows the orderprocessing department to update only the company name (COMPANY) and assigned salesperson (CUST_REP) columns of the CUSTOMERS table: Let order-processing users change company names and salesperson assignments.
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GRANT UPDATE (COMPANY, CUST_REP) ON CUSTOMERS TO OPUSER;
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If the column list is omitted, the privilege applies to all columns of the table or view, as in this example: Let accounts receivable users change any customer information.
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GRANT UPDATE ON CUSTOMERS TO ARUSER;
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SQL standard versions beyond SQL1 support granting the SELECT privilege for lists as columns, as with this example: Give accounts receivable users read-only access to the employee number, name, and sales of ce columns of the SALESREPS table.
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GRANT SELECT (EMPL_NUM, NAME, REP_OFFICE) ON SALESREPS TO ARUSER;
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This GRANT statement eliminates the need for the REPINFO view defined in Figure 15-3, and in practice, it can eliminate the need for many views in a commercial database. However, column-level SELECT privileges aren t yet supported by all the major DBMS vendors.
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Passing Privileges (GRANT OPTION)
When you create a database object and become its owner, you are the only person who can grant privileges to use the object. When you grant privileges to other users, they are allowed to use the object, but by default they cannot pass those privileges on to other users. In this way, the owner of an object maintains very tight control both over who has permission to use the object and over which forms of access are allowed. Occasionally, you may want to allow other users to grant privileges on an object that you own. For example, consider again the EASTREPS and WESTREPS views in the sample database. Sam Clark, the vice president of sales, created these views and owns them. He can give the Los Angeles office manager, Larry Fitch, permission to use the WESTREPS view with this GRANT statement:
GRANT SELECT ON WESTREPS TO LARRY;
What happens if Larry wants to give Sue Smith (user-id SUE) permission to access the WESTREPS data because she is doing some sales forecasting for the Los Angeles office Based on the preceding GRANT statement, he cannot give her the required privilege. Only Sam Clark can grant the privilege, because he owns the view. If Sam wants to give Larry discretion over who may use the WESTREPS view, he can use this variation of the previous GRANT statement:
GRANT ON TO WITH SELECT WESTREPS LARRY GRANT OPTION;
PART IV
Because of the WITH GRANT OPTION clause, this GRANT statement conveys, along with the specified privileges, the right to grant those privileges to other users. Larry can now issue this GRANT statement:
GRANT SELECT ON WESTREPS TO SUE;
which allows Sue Smith to retrieve data from the WESTREPS view. Figure 15-6 graphically illustrates the flow of privileges, first from Sam to Larry, and then from Larry to Sue. Because the GRANT statement issued by Larry did not include the WITH GRANT OPTION clause, the chain of permissions ends with Sue; she can retrieve the WESTREPS data, but cannot grant access to another user. However, if Larry s grant of privileges to Sue had included the GRANT OPTION, the chain could continue to another level, allowing Sue to grant access to other users. It s very easy to lose control of who has which privileges when the GRANT OPTION is overused. For this reason, use of this option is often either forbidden or discouraged by corporate security administrators.
Part IV:
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