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SQL is a language and can be used programmatically, but it would be incorrect to call SQL a programming language. SQL lacks even the most primitive features of real programming languages. It has no provision for declaring variables, no GOTO statement, no IF statement for testing conditions, no FOR, DO, or WHILE statements to construct loops, no block structure, and so on. SQL is a database sublanguage that handles special-purpose database management tasks. To write a program that accesses a database, you must start with a conventional programming language such as COBOL, PL/I, FORTRAN, Pascal, C, C++, or Java, or a scripting language such as Perl, PHP, or Ruby, and then add SQL to the program.
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The initial ANSI/ISO SQL standard was concerned exclusively with this programmatic use of SQL. In fact, the standard did not even include the interactive SELECT statement described in s 6 through 9. It only specified the programmatic SELECT statement described later, in the section Data Retrieval in Embedded SQL. The SQL2 standard, published in 1992, expanded its focus to include interactive SQL (called direct invocation of SQL in the standard) and more advanced forms of programmatic SQL (the dynamic SQL capabilities described in 18). Commercial SQL database vendors offer two basic techniques for using SQL within an application program: Embedded SQL In this approach, SQL statements are embedded directly into the program s source code, intermixed with the other programming language statements. Special embedded SQL statements are used to retrieve data into the program. A special SQL precompiler accepts the combined source code and, along with other programming tools, converts it into an executable program. Application program interface In this approach, the program communicates with the DBMS through a set of function calls called an application program interface (API). The program passes SQL statements to the DBMS through the API calls and uses API calls to retrieve query results. This approach does not require a special precompiler. The initial IBM SQL products used an embedded SQL approach, and most commercial SQL products adopted it in the 1980s. The original ANSI/ISO SQL standard specified only an awkward module language for programmatic SQL, but commercial SQL products continued to follow the IBM de facto standard. In 1989, the ANSI/ISO standard was extended to include a definition of how to embed SQL statements within the Ada, C, COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal, and PL/I programming languages, this time following the IBM approach. The SQL2 standard and subsequent revisions continued this specification. In parallel with this evolution of embedded SQL, several DBMS vendors who were focused on minicomputer systems introduced callable database APIs in the 1980s. When the Sybase DBMS was introduced, it offered only a callable API. Microsoft s SQL Server, derived from the Sybase DBMS, also used the API approach exclusively. Soon after the debut of SQL Server, Microsoft introduced Open Database Connectivity (ODBC), another callable API. ODBC is roughly based on the SQL Server API, but with the additional goals of being database independent and permitting concurrent access to two or more different DBMS brands through a common API. Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) has emerged as an important API for accessing a relational database from within programs written in Java. With the growing popularity of callable APIs, the callable and embedded approaches are both in active use today. In general, programmers using older languages, such as COBOL and Assembler, will tend to favor the embedded SQL approach. Programmers using languages such as C++ and Java will tend to favor the callable API approach. Specifications for embedded SQL in Java were added to the SQL standard in 1999 and revised in several subsequent releases. The standard was originally called SQLJ (later SQL/JRT), and several vendors implemented solutions known as JSQL. Most of these JSQL implementations use a preprocessor to translate SQL embedded in the Java program to JDBC API calls.
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