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The following table summarizes the programmatic interfaces offered by some of the leading SQL-based DBMS products:
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Embedded SQL Language Support APL, Assembler, BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, Java, PL/I C, COBOL, Java C None C, COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal, PL/I, Java C, COBOL, Java
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DBMS DB2 Informix Microsoft SQL Server MySQL Oracle Sybase
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Callable API ODBC, JDBC, JSQL ODBC, JDBC DB library (dblib), ODBC C-api (proprietary), ODBC, JDBC, Perl, PHP, Ruby, other scripting languages Oracle Call Interface (OCI), ODBC, JDBC, JSQL, PHP, Perl DB library (dblib), ODBC, JDBC, SQLJ
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The basic techniques of embedded SQL, called static SQL, are described in this chapter. Some advanced features of embedded SQL, called dynamic SQL, are discussed in 18. Callable SQL APIs, including the Sybase/SQL Server API, ODBC, and JDBC, are discussed in 19.
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To understand any of the programmatic SQL techniques, it helps to understand a little bit more about how the DBMS processes SQL statements. To process a SQL statement, the DBMS goes through a series of five steps, shown in Figure 17-1: 1. The DBMS begins by parsing the SQL statement. It breaks up the statement into individual words, making sure that the statement has a valid verb, legal clauses, and so on. Syntax errors and misspellings can be detected in this step. 2. The DBMS validates the statement. It checks the statement against the system catalog. Do all the tables named in the statement exist in the database Do all of the columns exist, and are the column names unambiguous Does the user have the required privileges to execute the statement Semantic errors are detected in this step. 3. The DBMS optimizes the statement. It explores various ways to carry out the statement. Can an index be used to speed a search Should the DBMS first apply a search condition to Table A and then join it to Table B, or should it begin with the join and use the search condition afterward Can a sequential search through a table be avoided or reduced to a subset of the table Can an index be used to avoid a sort After exploring alternatives, the DBMS chooses one of them. 4. The DBMS then generates an application plan for the statement. The application plan is a binary representation of the steps that are required to carry out the statement; it is the DBMS equivalent of executable code. 5. Finally, the DBMS carries out the statement by executing the application plan.
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PART V
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Part V:
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Programming with SQL
FIGURE 17-1
How the DBMS processes a SQL statement
Note that the definitions of the terms used in the preceding description vary from one DBMS product to another. The steps in Figure 17-1 vary in the amount of database access they require and the amount of CPU time they take. Parsing a SQL statement does not require access to the database and typically can be done very quickly. Optimization, on the other hand, is a very CPU-intensive process and requires access to the database s system catalog. For a complex, multitable query, the optimizer may explore more than a dozen different ways of carrying out the query. However, the cost in computer processing time of doing the query the wrong way is usually so high compared with the cost of doing it the right way (or at least a better way) that the time spent in optimization is more than gained back in increased query execution speed. When you type a SQL statement to interactive SQL, the DBMS goes through all five steps while you wait for its response. The DBMS has little choice in the matter it doesn t know which statement you are going to type until you type it, so none of the processing can be done ahead of time. However, some products such as Oracle automatically maintain a SQL cache that stores recently executed statements in memory. If the same statement is submitted to the SQL engine additional times, the parse step, and in some cases the bind step, can be skipped. Furthermore, if results of a previous identical query are still in memory, reexecution of the query may not be necessary.
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