barcode generator vb.net download An executable application plan by the DBMS in Software

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An executable application plan by the DBMS
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The embedded SQL development cycle may seem cumbersome, and it is more awkward than developing a standard C or COBOL program. In most cases, all of the steps in Figure 17-3 are automated by a single command procedure, so the individual steps are
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made invisible to the application programmer. The process does have several major advantages from a DBMS point of view, as follows: The blending of SQL and programming language statements in the embedded SQL source program is an effective way to merge the two languages. The host programming language provides flow of control, variables, block structure, and input/output functions; SQL handles database access and does not have to provide these other constructs. The use of a precompiler means that the compute-intensive work of parsing and optimization can take place during the development cycle. The resulting executable program is very efficient in its use of CPU resources. The database request module produced by the precompiler provides portability of applications. An application program can be written and tested on one system, and then its executable program and DBRM can be moved to another system. After the BIND program on the new system creates the application plan and installs it in the database, the application program can use it without being recompiled itself. The program s actual runtime interface to the private DBMS routines is completely hidden from the application programmer. The programmer works with embedded SQL at the source-code level and does not have to worry about other, more complex interfaces.
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Recall from Figure 17-3 that the embedded SQL development process produces two executable components, the executable program itself and the program s application plan, stored in the database. When you run an embedded SQL program, these two components are brought together to do the work of the application: 1. When you ask the computer system to run the program, the computer loads the executable program in the usual way and begins to execute its instructions. 2. One of the first calls generated by the precompiler is a call to a DBMS routine that finds and loads the application plan for the program. 3. For each embedded SQL statement, the program calls one or more private DBMS routines, requesting execution of the corresponding statement in the application plan. The DBMS finds the statement, executes that part of the plan, and then returns control to the program. 4. Execution continues in this way, with the executable program and the DBMS cooperating to carry out the task defined by the original embedded SQL source program.
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Runtime Security
When you use interactive SQL, the DBMS enforces its security based on the user-id you supply to the interactive SQL program. You can type any SQL statement you want, but the privileges granted to your user-id determine whether the DBMS will or will not execute the statement you type. When you run a program that uses embedded SQL, there are two userids to consider: The user-id of the person who developed the program, or more specifically, the person who ran the BIND program to create the application plan The user-id of the person who is now executing the program and the corresponding application plan It may seem strange to consider the user-id of the person who ran the BIND program (or more generally, the person who developed the application program or installed it on the computer system), but DB2 and several other commercial SQL products use both user-ids in their security scheme. To understand how the security scheme works, suppose that user JOE runs the ORDMAINT order maintenance program, which updates the ORDERS, SALES, and OFFICES tables. The application plan for the ORDMAINT program was originally bound by user-id OPADMIN, which belongs to the order-processing administrator. In the DB2 scheme, each application plan is a database object, protected by DB2 security. To execute a plan, JOE must have the EXECUTE privilege for it. If he does not, execution fails immediately. As the ORDMAINT program executes, its embedded INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements update the database. The privileges of the OPADMIN user determine whether the plan will be allowed to perform these updates. Note that the plan may update the tables even if JOE does not have the required privileges. However, the updates that can be performed are only those that have been explicitly coded into the embedded SQL statements of the program. Thus, DB2 provides very fine control over database security. The privileges of users to access tables can be very limited, without diminishing their ability to use canned programs. Not all DBMS products provide security protection for application plans. For those that do not, the privileges of the user executing an embedded SQL program determine the privileges of the program s application plan. Under this scheme, the user must have privileges to perform all of the actions performed by the plan, or the program will fail. If the user is not to have these same permissions in an interactive SQL environment, access to the interactive SQL program itself must be restricted, which is a disadvantage of this approach. Note that an application plan is optimized for the database structure as it exists at the time the plan is placed in the database by the BIND program. If the structure changes later (for example, if an index is dropped or a column is deleted from a table), any application plan that references the changed structures may become invalid. To handle this situation, the DBMS usually stores, along with the application plan, a copy of the original SQL statements that produced it. The DBMS also keeps track of all the database objects upon which each application plan depends. If any of these objects are modified by a DDL statement, the DBMS can find the plans that depend on it and automatically mark those plans as invalid. The next time the program tries to use the plan, the DBMS can detect the situation; in most cases, it will automatically rebind the statements to produce a new bind image. Because the DBMS has
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