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Declaring Tables
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In the IBM SQL products, the embedded DECLARE TABLE statement, shown in Figure 17-8, declares a table that will be referenced by one or more embedded SQL statements in your program. This is an optional statement that aids the precompiler in its task of parsing and validating the embedded SQL statements. By using the DECLARE TABLE statement, your program explicitly specifies its assumptions about the columns in the table and their data types and sizes. The precompiler checks the table and column references in your program to make sure they conform to your table declaration.
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FIGURE 17-7 Using embedded SQL to create a table
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main() { exec sql include sqlca; /* Create a new REGIONS table */ exec sql create table regions (name char(15), hq_city char(15), manager integer, target decimal(9,2), sales decimal(9.2), primary key name, foreign key manager references salesreps); printf("Table created.\n"); /* Insert two rows; one for each region */ exec sql insert into regions values ('Eastern', 'New York', 106, 0.00, 0.00); exec sql insert into regions values ('Western', 'Los Angeles', 108, 0.00, 0.00); printf("Table populated.\n"); exit(); }
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The programs in Figures 17-4, 17-5, and 17-6 all use the DECLARE TABLE statement. It s important to note that the statement appears purely for documentation purposes and for the use of the precompiler. It is not an executable statement, and you do not need to explicitly declare tables before referring to them in embedded DML or DDL statements. However, using the DECLARE TABLE statement does make your program more selfdocumenting and simpler to maintain. The IBM-developed SQL products all support the DECLARE TABLE statement, but most other SQL products do not support it, and their precompilers will generate an error message if you use it.
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FIGURE 17-8
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17:
Embedded SQL
Error Handling
When you type an interactive SQL statement that causes an error, the interactive SQL program displays an error message, aborts the statement, and prompts you to type a new statement. In embedded SQL, error handling becomes the responsibility of the application program. Actually, embedded SQL statements can produce two distinct types of errors: Compile-time errors Misplaced commas, misspelled SQL keywords, and similar errors in embedded SQL statements are detected by the SQL precompiler and reported to the programmer. The programmer can fix the errors and recompile the application program. Runtime errors An attempt to insert an invalid data value or lack of permission to update a table can be detected only at runtime. Errors such as these must be detected and handled by the application program. In embedded SQL programs, the DBMS reports runtime errors to the application program through a returned error code. If an error is detected, a further description of the error and other information about the statement just executed is available through additional diagnostic information. The earliest IBM-embedded SQL implementations defined an error-reporting mechanism that was adopted, with variations, by most of the major DBMS vendors. The central part of this scheme an error status variable named SQLCODE was also defined in the original ANSI/ISO SQL standard. The SQL2 standard, published in 1992, defined an entirely new, parallel error-reporting mechanism, built around an error status variable named SQLSTATE. These mechanisms are described in the next two sections.
Error Handling with SQLCODE
Under this scheme, pioneered by the earliest IBM products, the DBMS communicates status information to the embedded SQL program through an area of program storage called the SQL Communications Area (SQLCA). The SQLCA is a data structure that contains error variables and status indicators. By examining the SQLCA, the application program can determine the success or failure of its embedded SQL statements and act accordingly. Notice that in Figures 17-4, 17-5, 17-6, and 17-7 the first embedded SQL statement in the program is INCLUDE SQLCA. This statement tells the SQL precompiler to include a SQL Communications Area in this program. The specific contents of the SQLCA vary slightly from one brand of DBMS to another, but the SQLCA always provides the same type of information. Figure 17-9 shows the C language definition of the SQLCA used by the IBM databases. The most important part of the SQLCA, the SQLCODE variable, is supported by all of the major embedded SQL products and was specified by the ANSI/ISO SQL1 standard. As the DBMS executes each embedded SQL statement, it sets the value of the variable SQLCODE in the SQLCA to indicate the completion status of the statement: A SQLCODE of zero indicates successful completion of the statement, without any errors or warnings. A negative SQLCODE value indicates a serious error that prevented the statement from executing correctly. For example, an attempt to update a read-only view would produce a negative SQLCODE value. A separate negative value is assigned to each runtime error that can occur.
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