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PART V
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Part V:
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Programming with SQL
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struct sqlca { unsigned char long long short unsigned char unsigned char long unsigned char unsigned char } #define SQLCODE
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sqlcaid[8]; sqlcabc; sqlcode; sqlerrml; sqlerrmc[70]; sqlerrp[8]; sqlerrd[6]; sqlwarn[8]; sqlext[8];
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/* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /*
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the string "SQLCA " */ length of SQLCA, in bytes */ SQL status code */ length of sqlerrmc array data */ name(s) of object(s) causing error */ diagnostic information */ various counts and error code */ warning flag array */ extension to sqlwarn array */
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sqlca.sqlcode
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/* SQL status code */
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/* A 'W' in any of the SQLWARN fields signals a warning condition; otherwise these fields each contain a blank */ #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define SQLWARN0 SQLWARN1 SQLWARN2 SQLWARN3 SQLWARN4 SQLWARN5 SQLWARN6 SQLWARN7 sqlca.sqlwarn[0] sqlca.sqlwarn[1] sqlca.sqlwarn[2] sqlca.sqlwarn[3] sqlca.sqlwarn[4] sqlca.sqlwarn[5] sqlca.sqlwarn[6] sqlca.sqlwarn[7] /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* master warning flag */ string truncated */ NULLs eliminated from column function */ too few/too many host variables */ prepared UPDATE/DELETE without WHERE */ SQL/DS vs DB2 incompatibility */ invalid date in arithmetic expr */ reserved */
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FIGURE 17-9
The SQL Communications Area (SQLCA) for IBM databases (C language)
A positive SQLCODE value indicates a warning condition. For example, truncation or rounding of a data item retrieved by the program would produce a warning. A separate positive value is assigned to each runtime warning that can occur. The most common warning, with a value of +100 in most implementations and in the SQL standard, is the out-of-data warning returned when a program tries to retrieve the next row of query results and no more rows are left to retrieve. Because every executable embedded SQL statement can potentially generate an error, a well-written program will check the SQLCODE value after every executable embedded SQL statement. Figure 17-10 shows a C program excerpt that checks the SQLCODE value. Figure 17-11 shows a similar excerpt from a COBOL program.
Error Handling with SQLSTATE
By the time the SQL2 standard was being written, virtually all commercial SQL products were using the SQLCODE variable to report error conditions in an embedded SQL program. However, the different products used different error numbers to report the same or similar
17:
Embedded SQL
FIGURE 17-10 A C program excerpt with SQLCODE error checking
. . . exec sql delete from salesreps where quota < 150000; if (sqlca.sqlcode < 0) goto error_routine; . . . error_routine: printf("SQL error: %ld\n, sqlca.sqlcode); exit(); . . .
FIGURE 17-11 A COBOL program excerpt with SQLCODE error checking
. . . 01 PRINT_MESSAGE. 02 FILLER PIC X(11) VALUE 'SQL error:'. 02 PRINT-CODE PIC SZ(9). . . . EXEC SQL DELETE FROM SALESREPS WHERE QUOTA < 150000 END EXEC. IF SQLCODE NOT = ZERO GOTO ERROR-ROUTINE. . . . ERROR-ROUTINE. MOVE SQLCODE TO PRINT-CODE. DISPLAY PRINT_MESSAGE. . . .
PART V
Part V:
Programming with SQL
error conditions. Further, because of the significant differences among SQL implementations permitted by the SQL1 standard, considerable differences in the errors could occur from one implementation to another. Finally, the definition of the SQLCA varied in significant ways from one DBMS brand to another, and all of the major brands had a large installed base of applications that would be broken by any change to their SQLCA structure. Instead of tackling the impossible task of getting all of the DBMS vendors to agree to change their SQLCODE values to some standard, the writers of the SQL standard took a different approach. They included the SQLCODE error value, but identified it as a deprecated feature, meaning that it was considered obsolete and would be removed from the standard at some future time. To take its place, they introduced a new error variable, called SQLSTATE. The standard also specifies, in detail, the error conditions that can be reported through the SQLSTATE variable, and the error code assigned to each error. To conform to the SQL standard, a SQL product must report errors using both the SQLCODE and SQLSTATE error variables. In this way, existing programs that use SQLCODE will still function, but new programs can be written to use the standardized SQLSTATE error codes. The SQLSTATE variable consists of two parts: A two-character error class that identifies the general classification of the error (such as a connection error, an invalid data error, or a warning). A three-character error subclass that identifies a specific type of error within a general error class. For example, within the invalid data class, the error subclass might identify a divide-by-zero error, an invalid numeric value error, or an invalid datetime data error. Errors specified in the SQL standard have an error class code that begins with a digit from zero to four (inclusive) or a letter between A and H (inclusive). For example, data errors are indicated by error class 22. A violation of an integrity constraint (such as a foreign key definition) is indicated by error class 23. A transaction rollback is indicated by error class 40. Within each error class, the standard subclass codes also follow the same initial number/ letter restrictions. For example, within error class 40 (transaction rollback), the subclass codes are 001 for serialization failure (that is, your program was chosen as the loser in a deadlock), 002 for an integrity constraint violation, and 003 for errors where the completion status of the SQL statement is unknown (for example, when a network connection breaks or a server crashes before the statement completes). Figure 17-12 shows the same C program as Figure 17-10, but uses the SQLSTATE variable for error checking instead of SQLCODE. The standard specifically reserves error class codes that begin with digits from five to nine (inclusive) and letters between I and Z (inclusive) as implementation-specific errors that are not standardized. While this allows differences among DBMS brands to continue, all of the most common errors caused by SQL statements are included in the standardized error class codes. As commercial DBMS implementations move to support the SQLSTATE variable, one of the most troublesome incompatibilities between different SQL products is gradually being eliminated. The SQL standard provides additional error and diagnostics information through a new GET DIAGNOSTICS statement, shown in Figure 17-13. The statement allows an embedded SQL program to retrieve one or more items of information about the SQL statement just executed, or about an error condition that was just raised. Support for the GET DIAGNOSTICS statement is required for Intermediate SQL or Full SQL conformance to the
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