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main() { exec sql exec sql int char float float short exec sql
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include sqlca; begin declare section; repnum; repname[16]; repquota; repsales; repquota_ind; end declare section;
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/* /* /* /* /*
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employee number (from user) */ retrieved salesperson name */ retrieved quota */ retrieved sales */ null quota indicator */
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/* Prompt the user for the employee number */ printf("Enter salesrep number:"); scanf("%d", &repnum); /* Execute the SQL query */ exec sql select name, quota, sales into :repname, :repquota, :repquota_ind, :repsales; from salesreps where empl_num = :repnum /* Display the retrieved data */ if (sqlca.sqlcode = = 0){ printf("Name: %s\n", repname); if (repquota_ind < 0) printf("quota is NULL\n"); else printf("Quota: %f\n", repquota); printf("Sales: %f\n", repsales); } else if (sqlca.sqlcode = = 100) printf("No salesperson with that employee number.\n"); else printf("SQL error: %ld\n", sqlca.sqlcode); exit(); }
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FIGURE 17-21
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Using singleton SELECT with indicator variables
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PART V
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Because you cannot tell in advance when a NULL value will be retrieved, you should always specify an indicator variable in the INTO clause for any column of query results that may contain a NULL value. If the SELECT statement produces a column containing a NULL value and you have not specified an indicator variable for the column, the DBMS will treat the statement as an error and return a negative SQLCODE. Thus, indicator variables must be used to successfully retrieve rows containing NULL data. Furthermore, host variable values are not changed when NULL values are returned by the database, so the developer must test the indicator variable for NULL data before referencing the values in the host variables otherwise, values returned by a different query could be processed as if they were returned by the one that just completed.
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Part V:
Programming with SQL
Although the major use of indicator variables is for handling NULL values, the DBMS also uses indicator variables to signal warning conditions. For example, if an arithmetic overflow or division by zero makes one of the query results columns invalid, DB2 returns a warning SQLCODE of +802 and sets the indicator variable for the affected column to 2. The application program can respond to the SQLCODE and examine the indicator variables to determine which column contains invalid data. DB2 also uses indicator variables to signal string truncation. If the query results contain a column of character data that is too large for the corresponding host variable, DB2 copies the first part of the character string into the host variable and sets the corresponding indicator variable to the full length of the string. The application program can examine the indicator variable and may want to retry the SELECT statement with a different host variable that can hold a larger string. These additional uses of indicator variables are fairly common in commercial SQL products, but the specific warning code values vary from one product to another. They are not specified by the ANSI/ISO SQL standard. Instead, the SQL standard specifies error classes and subclasses to indicate these and similar conditions, and the program must use the GET DIAGNOSTICS statement to determine more specific information about the host variable causing the error. Some programming languages support data structures, which are named collections of variables. For these languages, a SQL precompiler may allow you to treat the entire data structure as a single, composite host variable in the INTO clause. Instead of specifying a separate host variable as the destination for each column of query results, you can specify a data structure as the destination for the entire row. Figure 17-22 shows the program from Figure 17-21 rewritten to use a C data structure. When the precompiler encounters a data structure reference in the INTO clause, it replaces the structure reference with a list of the individual variables in the structure, in the order they are declared within the structure. Thus, the number of items in the structure and their data types must correspond to the columns of query results. The use of data structures in the INTO clause is, in effect, a shortcut. It does not fundamentally change the way the INTO clause works. Support for the use of data structures as host variables varies widely among DBMS brands. It is also restricted to certain programming languages. DB2 supports C and PL/I structures, but does not support COBOL or assembly language structures, for example.
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