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main() { exec sql exec sql char float float short exec sql
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include sqlca; begin declare section; repname[16]; repquota; repsales; repquota_ind; end declare section;
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retrieved salesperson name */ retrieved quota */ retrieved sales */ null quota indicator */
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/* Declare the cursor for the query */ exec sql declare repcurs cursor for select name, quota, sales from salesreps where sales > quota order by name; /* Set up error processing */ whenever sqlerror goto error; whenever not found goto done; /* Open the cursor to start the query */ exec sql open repcurs; /* Loop through each row of query results */ for (;;){
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/* Fetch the next row of query results */ exec sql fetch repcurs 3 into :repname, :repquota, :repquota_ind, :repsales; /*Display the retrieved data */ printf("Name: %s\n", repname); if (repquota_ind < 0) printf("Quota is NULL\n"); else printf("Quota: %f\n", repquota); printf("Sales: %f\n", repsales); } error: printf("SQL error: %ld\n", sqlca.sqlcode); exit(); done: /* Query complete; close the cursor */ exec sql close repcurs; exit(); }
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PART V
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FIGURE 17-23
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Part V:
Programming with SQL
Cursors
As the program in Figure 17-23 illustrates, an embedded SQL cursor behaves much like a filename or file handle in a programming language such as C or COBOL. Just as a program opens a file to access the file s contents, it opens a cursor to gain access to the query results. Similarly, the program closes a file to end its access and closes a cursor to end access to the query results. Finally, just as a file handle keeps track of the program s current position within an open file, a cursor keeps track of the program s current position within the query results. These parallels between file input/output and SQL cursors make the cursor concept relatively easy for application programmers to understand. Despite the parallels between files and cursors, there are also some differences. Opening a SQL cursor usually involves much more overhead than opening a file, because opening the cursor actually causes the DBMS to begin carrying out the associated query. In addition, SQL cursors support only sequential motion through the query results, like sequential file processing. In most current SQL implementations, there is no cursor analog to the random access provided to the individual records of a file. Cursors provide a great deal of flexibility for processing queries in an embedded SQL program. By declaring and opening multiple cursors, the program can process several sets of query results in parallel. For example, the program might retrieve some rows of query results, display them on the screen for its user, and then respond to a user s request for more detailed data by launching a second query. The following sections describe in detail the four embedded SQL statements that define and manipulate cursors.
The DECLARE CURSOR Statement
The DECLARE CURSOR statement, shown in Figure 17-24, defines a query to be performed. The statement also associates a cursor name with the query. The cursor name must be a valid SQL identifier. It is used to identify the query and its results in other embedded SQL statements. The cursor name is specifically not a host language variable; it is declared by the DECLARE CURSOR statement, not in a host language declaration. The SELECT statement in the DECLARE CURSOR statement defines the query associated with the cursor. The SELECT statement can be any valid interactive SQL SELECT statement, as described in s 6 through 9. In particular, the SELECT statement must include a FROM clause and may optionally include WHERE, GROUP BY, HAVING, and ORDER BY clauses. The SELECT statement may also include the UNION operator, as described in 6. Thus, an embedded SQL query can use any of the query capabilities that are available in the interactive SQL. The query specified in the DECLARE CURSOR statement may also include input host variables. These host variables perform exactly the same function as in the embedded INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, and singleton SELECT statements. An input host variable can appear within the query anywhere that a constant can appear. Note that output host variables cannot appear in the query. Unlike the singleton SELECT statement, the SELECT statement within the DECLARE CURSOR statement has no INTO clause and does not retrieve any data. The INTO clause appears as part of the FETCH statement, described shortly.
FIGURE 17-24
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