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The DECLARE CURSOR statement syntax diagram
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As its name implies, the DECLARE CURSOR statement is a declaration of the cursor. In most SQL implementations, including the IBM SQL products, this statement is a directive for the SQL precompiler; it is not an executable statement, and the precompiler does not produce any code for it. Like all declarations, the DECLARE CURSOR statement must physically appear in the program before any statements that reference the cursor that it declares. Most SQL implementations treat the cursor name as a global name that can be referenced inside any procedures, functions, or subroutines that appear after the DECLARE CURSOR statement. It s worth noting that not all SQL implementations treat the DECLARE CURSOR statement strictly as a declarative statement, and this can lead to subtle problems. Some SQL precompilers actually generate code for the DECLARE CURSOR statement (either host language declarations or calls to the DBMS, or both), giving it some of the qualities of an executable statement. For these precompilers, the DECLARE CURSOR statement must not only physically precede the OPEN, FETCH, and CLOSE statements that reference its cursor, but it also must sometimes precede these statements in the flow of execution, or be placed in the same block as the other statements. In general, you can avoid problems with the DECLARE CURSOR statement by following these guidelines: Place the DECLARE CURSOR statement right before the OPEN statement for the cursor. This placement ensures the correct physical statement sequence; it puts the DECLARE CURSOR and the OPEN statements in the same block; and it ensures that the flow of control passes through the DECLARE CURSOR statement, if necessary. It also helps to document just what query is being requested by the OPEN statement. Make sure that the FETCH and CLOSE statements for the cursor follow the OPEN statement physically as well as in the flow of control.
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The OPEN Statement
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The OPEN statement, shown in Figure 17-25, conceptually opens the table of query results for access by the application program. In practice, the OPEN statement actually causes the DBMS to process the query, or at least to begin processing it. The OPEN statement thus causes the DBMS to perform the same work as an interactive SELECT statement, stopping just short of the point where it produces the first row of query results. The single parameter of the OPEN statement is the name of the cursor to be opened. This cursor must have been previously declared by a DECLARE CURSOR statement. If the query associated with the cursor contains an error, the OPEN statement will produce a negative SQLCODE value. Most query-processing errors, such as a reference to an unknown table, an ambiguous column name, or an attempt to retrieve data from a table without the proper permission, will be reported as a result of the OPEN statement. In practice, very few errors occur during the subsequent FETCH statements.
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FIGURE 17-25
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The OPEN statement syntax diagram
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FIGURE 17-26
The FETCH statement syntax diagram
Once opened, a cursor remains in the open state until it is closed with the CLOSE statement. The DBMS also closes all open cursors automatically at the end of a transaction (that is, when the DBMS executes a COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement). After the cursor has been closed, it can be reopened by executing the OPEN statement a second time. Note that the DBMS restarts the query from scratch each time it executes the OPEN statement.
The FETCH Statement
The FETCH statement, shown in Figure 17-26, retrieves the next row of query results for use by the application program. The cursor named in the FETCH statement specifies which row of query results is to be fetched. It must identify a cursor previously opened by the OPEN statement. The FETCH statement fetches the row of data items into a list of host variables, which are specified in the INTO clause of the statement. An indicator variable can be associated with each host variable to handle retrieval of NULL data. The behavior of the indicator variable and the values that it can assume are identical to those described earlier in the Single-Row Queries section for the singleton SELECT statement. The number of host variables in the list must be the same as the number of columns in the query results, and the data types of the host variables must be compatible, column by column, with the columns of query results. As shown in Figure 17-27, the FETCH statement moves the cursor through the query results, row by row, according to these rules: The OPEN statement positions the cursor before the first row of query results. In this state, the cursor has no current row. The FETCH statement advances the cursor to the next available row of query results, if there is one. This row becomes the current row of the cursor. If a FETCH statement advances the cursor past the last row of query results, the FETCH statement returns a NOT FOUND warning. In this state, the cursor again has no current row. The CLOSE statement ends access to the query results and places the cursor in a closed state. If there are no rows of query results, the OPEN statement still positions the cursor before the (empty) query results and returns successfully. The program cannot detect that the OPEN statement has produced an empty set of query results. However, the very first FETCH statement produces the NOT FOUND warning and positions the cursor after the end of the (empty) query results.
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