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Based on the user s response to the initial questions, the program generates this dynamic UPDATE statement and prepares it:
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Dynamic SQL*
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The statement specifies four parameters, and the program allocates a SQLDA big enough to handle four SQLVAR structures. When the user supplies the first set of parameter values, the dynamic UPDATE statement becomes
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and with the second set of parameter values, it becomes
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This program is somewhat complex, but it s simple compared with a real generalpurpose database update utility. It also illustrates all of the dynamic SQL features required to dynamically execute statements with a variable number of parameters.
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Dynamic Queries
The EXECUTE IMMEDIATE, PREPARE, and EXECUTE statements as described thus far support dynamic execution of most SQL statements. However, they can t support dynamic queries because they lack a mechanism for retrieving the query results. To support dynamic queries, SQL combines the dynamic SQL features of the PREPARE and EXECUTE statements with extensions to the static SQL query-processing statements, and adds a new statement. Here is an overview of how a program performs a dynamic query: 1. A dynamic version of the DECLARE CURSOR statement declares a cursor for the query. Unlike the static DECLARE CURSOR statement, which includes a hard-coded SELECT statement, the dynamic form of the DECLARE CURSOR statement specifies the statement name that will be associated with the dynamic SELECT statement. 2. The program constructs a valid SELECT statement and stores it in a variable, just as it would construct a dynamic UPDATE or DELETE statement. The SELECT statement may contain parameter markers like those used in other dynamic SQL statements. 3. The program uses the PREPARE statement to pass the statement string to the DBMS, which parses, validates, and optimizes the statement and generates an application plan. This is identical to the PREPARE processing used for other dynamic SQL statements. 4. The program uses the DESCRIBE statement to request a description of the query results that will be produced by the query. The DBMS returns a column-by-column description of the query results in a SQL Data Area (SQLDA) supplied by the program, telling the program how many columns of query results there are, and the name, data type, and length of each column. The DESCRIBE statement is used exclusively for dynamic queries. 5. The program uses the column descriptions in the SQLDA to allocate a block of memory to receive each column of query results. The program may also allocate space for an indicator variable for the column. The program places the address of the data area and the address of the indicator variable into the SQLDA to tell the DBMS where to return the query results.
PART V
Part V:
Programming with SQL
6. A dynamic version of the OPEN statement asks the DBMS to start executing the query and passes values for the parameters specified in the dynamic SELECT statement. The OPEN statement positions the cursor before the first row of query results. 7. A dynamic version of the FETCH statement advances the cursor to the first row of query results and retrieves the data into the program s data areas and indicator variables. Unlike the static FETCH statement, which specifies a list of host variables to receive the data, the dynamic FETCH statement uses the SQLDA to tell the DBMS where to return the data. Subsequent executions of this dynamic FETCH statement move through the query results row by row, advancing the cursor to the next row of query results and retrieving its data into the program s data areas. 8. The CLOSE statement ends access to the query results and breaks the association between the cursor and the query results. This CLOSE statement is identical to the static SQL CLOSE statement; no extensions are required for dynamic queries. The programming required to perform a dynamic query is more extensive than the programming for any other embedded SQL statement. However, the programming is typically more tedious than complex. Figure 18-9 shows a small query program that uses dynamic SQL to retrieve and display selected columns from a user-specified table. The callout numbers in the figure identify the eight steps in the preceding list. The program in the figure begins by prompting the user for the table name and then queries the system catalog to discover the names of the columns in that table. It asks the user to select the column(s) to be retrieved and constructs a dynamic SELECT statement based on the user s responses. The step-by-step mechanical construction of a select list in this example is very typical of database front-end programs that generate dynamic SQL. In real applications, the generated select list might include expressions or aggregate functions, and there might be additional program logic to generate GROUP BY, HAVING, and ORDER BY clauses. A graphical user interface would also be used instead of the primitive user prompting in the sample program. However, the programming steps and concepts remain the same. Notice that the generated SELECT statement is identical to the interactive SELECT statement that you would use to perform the requested query. The handling of the PREPARE and DESCRIBE statements and the method of allocating storage for the retrieved data in this program are also typical of dynamic query programs. Note how the program uses the column descriptions placed in the SQLVAR array to allocate a data storage block of the proper size for each column. This program also allocates space for an indicator variable for each column. The program places the address of the data block and indicator variable back into the SQLVAR structure. The OPEN, FETCH, and CLOSE statements play the same role for dynamic queries as they do for static queries, as illustrated by this program. Note that the FETCH statement specifies the SQLDA instead of a list of host variables. Because the program has previously filled in the SQLDATA and SQLIND fields of the SQLVAR array, the DBMS knows where to place each retrieved column of data. As this example shows, much of the programming required for a dynamic query is concerned with setting up the SQLDA and allocating storage for the SQLDA and the retrieved data. The program must also sort out the various types of data that can be returned by the query and handle each one correctly, taking into account the possibility that the returned data will be NULL. These characteristics of the sample program are typical of production
18:
Dynamic SQL*
applications that use dynamic queries. Despite the complexity, the programming is not too difficult in languages like C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, or Java. Languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, which lack the capability to dynamically allocate storage and work with variable-length data structures, are not practical for dynamic query processing. The following sections discuss the DESCRIBE statement and the dynamic versions of the DECLARE CURSOR, OPEN, and FETCH statements.
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