qr barcode generator vb.net PART V in Software

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PART V
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Part V:
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Programming with SQL
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If the SQLD field is zero, the statement text was not a query, and the EXECUTE statement can be used to execute it. If the SQLD field is positive, the statement text was a query, and the OPEN/FETCH/CLOSE statement sequence must be used to execute it.
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The DECLARE CURSOR Statement
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The dynamic DECLARE CURSOR statement, shown in Figure 18-11, is a variation of the static DECLARE CURSOR statement. Recall from 17 that the static DECLARE CURSOR statement literally specifies a query by including the SELECT statement as one of its clauses. By contrast, the dynamic DECLARE CURSOR statement specifies the query indirectly, by specifying the statement name associated with the query by the PREPARE statement. Like the static DECLARE CURSOR statement, the dynamic DECLARE CURSOR statement is a directive to the SQL precompiler rather than an executable statement. It must appear before any other references to the cursor that it declares. The cursor name declared by this statement is used in subsequent OPEN, FETCH, and CLOSE statements to process the results of the dynamic query.
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The Dynamic OPEN Statement
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The dynamic OPEN statement, shown in Figure 18-12, is a variation of the static OPEN statement. It causes the DBMS to begin executing a query and positions the associated cursor just before the first row of query results. When the OPEN statement completes successfully, the cursor is in an open state and is ready to be used in a FETCH statement. The role of the OPEN statement for dynamic queries parallels the role of the EXECUTE statement for other dynamic SQL statements. Both the EXECUTE and the OPEN statements cause the DBMS to execute a statement previously compiled by the PREPARE statement. If the dynamic query text includes one or more parameter markers, then the OPEN statement, like the EXECUTE statement, must supply values for these parameters. The USING clause specifies parameter values, and it has an identical format in both the EXECUTE and OPEN statements.
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DECLARE cursor-name SENSITIVE INSENSITIVE ASENSITIVE SCROLL NO SCROLL
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CURSOR
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FOR statement-name WITH HOLD WITHOUT HOLD WITH RETURN WITHOUT RETURN
FIGURE 18-11
The dynamic DECLARE CURSOR statement syntax diagram
18:
Dynamic SQL*
OPEN cursor-name USING host-variable , DESCRIPTOR descriptor-name
FIGURE 18-12
The dynamic OPEN statement syntax diagram
If the number of parameters that will appear in a dynamic query is known in advance, the program can pass the parameter values to the DBMS through a list of host variables in the USING clause of the OPEN statement. As in the EXECUTE statement, the number of host variables must match the number of parameters; the data type of each host variable must be compatible with the type required by the corresponding parameter; and an indicator variable can be specified for each host variable, if necessary. Figure 18-13 shows a program excerpt where the dynamic query has three parameters whose values are specified by host variables. If the number of parameters is not known until runtime, the program must pass the parameter values using a SQLDA structure. This technique for passing parameter values was described for the EXECUTE statement earlier in the section EXECUTE with SQLDA. The same technique is used for the OPEN statement. Figure 18-14 shows a program excerpt like the one in Figure 18-13, except that it uses a SQLDA to pass parameters.
. . . /* Program has previously generated and prepared a SELECT statement like this one: SELECT A, B, C ... FROM SALESREPS WHERE SALES BETWEEN AND with two parameters to be specified */
PART V
/* Prompt the user for low & high values and do the query */ printf("Enter low end of sales range: "); scanf("%f", &low_end); printf("Enter high end of sales range: "); scanf("%f", &high_end); /*Open the cursor to start the query, passing parameters */ exec sql open qrycursor using :low_end, :high_end; . . .
FIGURE 18-13
OPEN statement with host variable parameter passing
Part V:
Programming with SQL
. . . /* Program has previously generated and prepared a SELECT statement like this one: SELECT A, B, C ... FROM SALESREPS WHERE EMPL_NUM IN ( , , ... ) with a variable number of parameters to be specified. The number of parameters for this execution is stored in the variable parmcnt. */ *malloc() char SQLDA *parmda; SQLVAR *parmvar; long parm_value[101]; /* Allocate a SQLDA to pass parameter values */ parmda = (SQLDA *)malloc(sizeof(SQLDA) + parmcnt * sizeof(SQLVAR)); parmda->sqln = parmcnt; /* Prompt the user for parameter values */ for (i = 0; i < parmcnt; I++) { printf("Enter employee number: "); scanf("%ld", &(parm_value[i])); parmvar = parmda -> sqlvar + I; parmvar->sqltype = 496; parmvar->sqllen = 4; parmvar->sqldata = &(parm_value[i]); parmvar->sqlind = 0; } /* Open the cursor to start the query, passing parameters */ exec sql open qrycursor using descriptor :parmda; . . .
FIGURE 18-14
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