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Processing Query Results with CLI
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The CLI routines described thus far can be used to process SQL data definition statements or SQL data manipulation statements other than queries (that is, UPDATE, DELETE, and INSERT statements). For query processing, some additional CLI calls, shown in Figure 19-23, are required. The simplest way to process query results is with the SQLBindCol()and SQLFetch() calls. To carry out a query using these calls, the application program goes through the following steps (assuming a connection has already been established): 1. The program allocates a statement handle using SQLAllocHandle(). 2. The program calls SQLExecDirect() to pass the text of the SQL SELECT statement and to carry out the query. 3. The program calls SQLBindCol() once for each column of query results that will be returned. Each call associates a program buffer area with a returned data column. 4. The program calls SQLFetch() to fetch a row of query results. The data value for each column in the newly fetched row is placed into the appropriate program buffer as indicated in the previous SQLBindCol() calls. 5. If the query produces multiple rows, the program repeats Step 4 until the SQLFetch() call returns a value indicating that there are no more rows. 6. When all query results have been processed, the program calls SQLDisconnect() to end the database session. The program excerpt in Figure 19-24 shows a simple query carried out using this technique. The program is identical in function to the dblib-based program example in Figure 19-10. It s instructive to compare the two programs. The specifics of the calls and their parameters are quite different, but the flow of the programs and the logical sequence of calls that they make are the same.
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19:
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/* Bind a query results column to a program data area */ SQLSMALLINT SQLBindCol ( SQLINTEGER SQLSMALLINT SQLSMALLINT void SQLINTEGER SQLINTEGER stmtHdl, colnr, tgttype, value, buflen, lenind) /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: statement handle */ column number to be bound */ data type of program data area */ ptr to program data area */ length of program buffer */ ptr to length/indicator buffer */
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/* Advance the cursor to the next row of query results */ SQLSMALLINT SQLFetch ( SQLINTEGER stmtHdl) /* IN: statement handle */
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/* Scroll the cursor up or down through the query results */ SQLSMALLINT SQLFetchScroll ( SQLINTEGER SQLSMALLINT SQLINTEGER stmtHdl, fetchdir, offset) /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: statement handle */ direction (first/next/prev) */ offset (number of rows) */
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/* Get the data for a single column of query results */ SQLSMALLINT SQLGetData ( SQLINTEGER SQLSMALLINT stmtHdl, colnr, /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: statement handle */ column number to be retrieved */ data type to return to program */ ptr to buffer for column data */ length of program buffer */
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SQLSMALLINT tgttype, void *value, SQLINTEGER SQLINTEGER buflen, *lenind)
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/* OUT: actual length and/or NULL ind */
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/* Close a cursor to end access to query results */ SQLSMALLINT SQLCloseCursor ( SQLINTEGER stmtHdl) /* IN: statement handle */
/* Establish a cursor name for an open cursor */ SQLSMALLINT SQLSetCursorName ( SQLINTEGER SQLCHAR SQLSMALLINT stmtHdl, cursname, namelen) /* IN: /* IN: /* IN: statement handle */ name for cursor */ length of cursor name */
PART V
/* Retrieve the name of an open cursor */ SQLSMALLINT SQLGetCursorName ( SQLINTEGER SQLCHAR SQLSMALLINT stmtHdl, cursname, buflen, /* IN: statement handle */ /* OUT: buffer for returned name */ /* IN: length of buffer */ /* OUT: actual length of returned name */[
SQLSMALLINT *namlen)
FIGURE 19-23
CLI query results processing routines
Part V:
Programming with SQL
/* Program to display a report of sales reps over quota */ #include <sqlcli.h> main() { SQLHENV SQLHDBC SQLHSTMT SQLRETURN SQLCHAR SQLCHAR SQLCHAR char float float char env_hdl; conn_hdl; stmt_hdl; status; *svr_name = "demo"; *user_name = "joe"; *user_pswd = "xyz"; repname[16]; repquota; repsales; stmt_buf[128]; /* SQL-environment handle */ /* connection handle */ /* statement handle */ /* CLI routine return status */ /* server name */ /* user name for connection */ /* user password for connection */ /* retrieved salesperson's name */ /* retrieved quota */ /* retrieved sales */ /* NULL quota indicator */ /* buffer for SQL statement */ /* header file with CLI definitions */
SQLSMALLINT repquota_ind;
/* Allocate handles and connect to the database */ SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, SQL_NULL_HANDLE, &env_hdl); SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, env_hdl, &conn_hdl); SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, conn_hdl, &stmt_hdl); SQLConnect(conn_hdl, svr_name, SQL_NTS, user_name, SQL_NTS, user_pswd, SQL_NTS); /* Request execution of the query */ strcpy(stmt_buf, "select name, quota, sales from salesreps "); strcat(stmt_buf, "where sales > quota order by name"); SQLExecDirect(stmt_hdl, stmt_buf, SQL_NTS); / * Bind retrieved columns to the program's buffers */ SQLBindCol(stmt_hdl,1,SQL_C_CHAR,repname,15,NULL); SQLBindCol(stmt_hdl,2,SQL_C_FLOAT,&repquota,0,"a_ind); SQLBindCol(stmt_hdl,3,SQL_C_FLOAT,&repsales,0,NULL); / * Loop through each row of query results */ for ( ; ; ) {
FIGURE 19-24
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