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Using CLI for a dynamic query
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SQL APIs
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case SQL_INTEGER: case SQL_SMALLINT: /* Convert these types to C long integers */ item_data[i] = dataptr = malloc(sizeof(integer)); item_type[i] = SQL_C_SLONG; SQLBindCol(stmt1_hdl, i, SQL_C_SLONG, dataptr, sizeof(integer), indptr); break; case SQL_NUMERIC: case SQL_DECIMAL: case SQL_FLOAT: case SQL_REAL: case SQL_DOUBLE: /* For illustration, convert these types to C double floats */ item_data[i] = dataptr = malloc(sizeof(long)); item_type[i] = SQL_C_DOUBLE; SQLBindCol(stmt1_hdl, i, SQL_C_DOUBLE, dataptr, sizeof(double), indptr); break; default: /* For simplicity, we don't handle bit strings, etc. */ printf("Cannot handle data type %d\n", (integer)type); exit(); } } /* Fetch and display the rows of query results */ while (status = SQLFetch(stmt1_hdl) == SQL_SUCCESS) { /* Loop, printing data for each column of the row / printf("\n"); for(i = 0; i < colcount; i++) { /* Print column label */ printf("Column # %d (%s): ", i+1, item_name[i]); /* Check indicator variable for NULL indication */ if (item_ind[i] == SQL_NULL_DATA){ puts("is NULL!\n"); continue; }
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Using CLI for a dynamic query (continued)
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/* Handle each returned (maybe converted) data type separately / switch(item_type[i]) { case SQL_C_CHAR: /* Returned as text data - just display it */ puts(item_data[i]); break; case SQL_C_SLONG: /* Four-byte integer data - convert & display it */ printf("%ld", *((int *)(item_data[i]))); break; case SQL_C_DOUBLE: /* Floating-point data break; } } } printf("\nEnd of data.\n"): /* Clean up allocated storage */ for (i = 0; i < colcount; i++) { free(item_data[i]); free(item_name[i]); } SQLDisconnect(conn_hdl); SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, stmt1_hdl); SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, stmt2_hdl); SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, conn_hdl); SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, env_hdl); exit(); } convert & display it */ printf("%lf", *((double *)(item_data[i])));
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FIGURE 19-26
Using CLI for a dynamic query (continued)
19:
SQL APIs
The alternative CLI method for dynamic query processing involves CLI descriptors. A CLI descriptor contains low-level information about a statement parameter (a parameter descriptor) or the columns of a row of query results (a row descriptor). The information in the descriptor is like that contained in the variable area of the SQLDA the column or parameter s name, data type and subtype, length, data buffer location, NULL indicator location, and so on. The parameter descriptors and row descriptors thus correspond to the input and output SQLDAs provided by some DBMS brands in their embedded dynamic SQL implementations. CLI descriptors are identified by descriptor handles. The CLI provides a default set of descriptors for parameters and query results columns when a statement is prepared. Alternatively, the program can allocate its own descriptors and use them. The handles of the descriptors for a statement are considered statement attributes, and they are associated with a particular statement handle. The descriptor handle values can be retrieved and set by the application program using the attribute management routines, described later in the section CLI Attributes. Two calls are used to retrieve information from a descriptor, given its handle. The SQLGetDescField() call retrieves a particular field of a descriptor, which is identified by a code value. It is typically used to obtain the data type or length of a query results column, for example. The SQLGetDescRec() call retrieves many pieces of information in one call, including the column or parameter name, data type and subtype, length, precision and scale, and whether it may contain NULL values. A corresponding set of calls is used to place information into a descriptor. The SQLSetDescField() call sets the value of a single piece of information within a descriptor. The SQLSetDescRec() sets multiple values in a single call, including the data type and subtype, length, precision and scale, and nullability. For convenience, the CLI provides a SQLCopyDesc() call that copies all of the values from one descriptor to another.
CLI Errors and Diagnostic Information
Each CLI function returns a short integer value that indicates its completion status. If the completion status indicates an error, the error-handling CLI calls shown in Figure 19-27 can be used to obtain more information about the error and diagnose it. The most basic errorhandling call is SQLError(). The application program passes the environment, connection, and statement handles and is returned the SQLSTATE result code, the native error code of the subsystem producing the error, and an error message in text form. The SQLError() routine actually retrieves specific, frequently used information from the CLI diagnostics area. The other error-handling routines provide more complete information through direct access to the diagnostic records created and maintained by the CLI. In general, a CLI call can produce multiple errors, which result in multiple diagnostic records. The SQLGetDiagRec() call retrieves an individual diagnostic record, by record number. Through repeated calls, the application program can retrieve complete information about all error records produced by a CLI call. Even more complete information can be obtained by interrogating individual diagnostic fields within the record. This capability is provided by the SQLGetDiagField() call. Although not strictly an error-processing function, the SQLRowCount() function, like the error-handling functions, is called after a previous CLI SQLExecute() call. It is used to determine the impact of the previous statement when it was successful. A returned value indicates the number of rows of data affected by the previously executed statement. (For example, the value 4 would be returned for a searched UPDATE statement that updates four rows.)
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