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Creating a Stored Procedure
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In many common SPL dialects, the CREATE PROCEDURE statement is used to create a stored procedure and to specify how it operates. The CREATE PROCEDURE statement assigns the newly defined procedure a name, which is used to call it. The name must typically follow the rules for SQL identifiers. (The procedure in Figure 20-1 is named ADD_CUST.) A stored procedure accepts zero or more parameters as its arguments. (This one has six parameters: C_NAME, C_NUM, CRED_LIM, TGT_SLS, C_REP, and C_OFFC.) In all of the common SPL dialects, the values for the parameters appear in a comma-separated list, enclosed in parentheses, following the procedure name when the procedure is called. The header of the stored procedure definition specifies the names of the parameters and their data types. The same SQL data types supported by the DBMS for columns within the database can be used as parameter data types. In Figure 20-1, all of the parameters are input parameters (signified by the IN keyword in the procedure header in the Oracle PL/SQL dialect). When the procedure is called, the parameters are assigned the values specified in the procedure call, and the statements in the procedure body begin to execute. The parameter names may appear within the procedure body (and particularly within standard SQL statements in the procedure body) anywhere that a constant may appear. When a parameter name appears, the DBMS uses its current value. In Figure 20-1, the parameters are used in the INSERT statement and the UPDATE statement, both as data values to be used in column calculations and as search conditions. In addition to input parameters, some SPL dialects also support output parameters. These allow a stored procedure to pass back values that it calculates during its execution. Output parameters provide an important capability for passing back information from one stored procedure to another stored procedure that calls it, and can also be useful for debugging stored procedures using interactive SQL. Some SPL dialects support parameters that operate as both input and output parameters. In this case, the parameter passes a value to the stored procedure, and any changes to the value during the procedure execution are reflected in the calling procedure. Figure 20-2 shows the same ADD_CUST procedure definition, expressed in the Sybase Transact-SQL dialect. (The Transact-SQL dialect is also used by Microsoft SQL Server; its basics are largely unchanged since the original Sybase SQL Server version, which was the foundation for both the Microsoft and Sybase product lines.) Note the differences from the Oracle dialect: The keyword PROCEDURE can be abbreviated to PROC. No parenthesized list of parameters follows the procedure name. Instead, the parameter declarations immediately follow the name of the stored procedure. The parameter names all begin with an at sign (@), both when they are declared at the beginning of the procedure and when they appear within SQL statements in the procedure body. There is no formal end-of-procedure body marker. Instead, the procedure body is a single Transact-SQL statement. If more than one statement is needed, the TransactSQL block structure is used to group the statements.
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/* Add a customer procedure */ create proc add_cust @c_name varchar(20), @c_num integer, @cred_lim decimal(9,2), @tgt_sls @c_rep @c_offc as begin /* Insert new row of CUSTOMERS table */ insert into customers (cust_num, company, cust_rep, credit_limit) values (@c_num, @c_name, @c_rep, @cred_lim) /* Update row of SALESREPS table */ update salesreps set quota = quota + quota + @tgt_sls where empl_num = @c_rep /* Update row of OFFICES table */ update offices set target = target + @tgt_sls where city = @c_offc /* Commit transaction and we are done */ commit trans end decimal(9,2), integer, varchar(15) /* input customer name */ /* input customer number */ /* input credit limit */ /* input target sales */ /* input salesrep emp # */ /* input office city */
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