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Database Processing and Stored Procedural SQL
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/* Get customer name, salesrep, and office */ create procedure get_cust_info(@c_num integer, @c_name varchar(20) out, @r_name varchar(15) out, @c_offc varchar(15) out)
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as begin /* Simple single-row query to get info */ select @c_name = company, @r_name = name, @c_offc = city from customers, salesreps, offices where cust_num = @c_num and empl_num = cust_rep and office = rep_office; end
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Transact-SQL stored procedure with output parameters
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Figure 20-10 shows a version of the GET_CUST_INFO procedure defined in the TransactSQL dialect. The way in which the output parameters are identified in the procedure header differs slightly from the Oracle version, variable names begin with the @ sign, and the single-row SELECT statement has a different form. Otherwise, the structure of the procedure and its operation are identical to the Oracle example. When this procedure is called from another Transact-SQL procedure, the fact that the second, third, and fourth parameters are output parameters must be indicated in the call to the procedure, as well as in its definition. Here is the Transact-SQL syntax for calling the procedure in Figure 20-10:
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/* Get the customer info for customer 2111 */ declare the_name varchar(20); declare the_rep varchar(15); declare the_city varchar(15); exec get_cust_info @c_num = 2111, @c_name = the_name output, @r_name = the_rep output, @c_offc = the_city output;
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Figure 20-11 shows the Informix SPL version of the same stored procedure example. Informix takes a different approach to handling multiple return values. Instead of output parameters, Informix extends the definition of a stored function to allow multiple return values. Thus, the GET_CUST_INFO procedure becomes a function for the Informix dialect. The multiple return values are specified in the RETURNING clause of the procedure header, and they are actually returned by the RETURN statement.
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FIGURE 20-11 Informix stored function with multiple return values
/* Get customer name, salesrep, and office */ create function get_cust_info(c_num integer) returning varchar(20), varchar(15), varchar(15) define c_name varchar(20); define r_name varchar(15); define r_name varchar(15); /* Simple single-row query to get info */ select company, name, city into cname, r_name, c_offc from customers, salesreps, offices where cust_num = c_num and empl_num = cust_rep and office = rep_office; /* Return the three values */ return cname, r_name, c_offc; end procedure;
The Informix CALL statement that invokes the stored function uses a special RETURNING clause to receive the returned values:
/* Get the customer info for customer 2111 */ define the_name varchar(20); define the_rep varchar(15); define the_city varchar(15); call get_cust_info (2111) returning the_name, the_rep, the_city;
As in the Transact-SQL dialect, Informix also allows a version of the CALL statement that passes the parameters by name:
call get_cust_info (c_num = 2111) returning the_name, the_rep, the_city;
Conditional Execution
One of the most basic features of stored procedures is an IF THEN ELSE construct for decision making within the procedure. Look back at the original ADD_CUST procedure defined in Figure 20-1 for adding a new customer. Suppose that the rules for adding new customers are modified so that there is a cap on the amount by which a salesperson s quota should be increased for a new customer. If the customer s anticipated first-year orders are $20,000 or less, that amount should be added to the quota, but if they are more than $20,000, the quota should be increased by only $20,000. Figure 20-12 shows a modified procedure that implements this new policy. The IF THEN ELSE logic operates exactly as it does in any conventional programming language.
20:
Database Processing and Stored Procedural SQL
/* Add a customer procedure */ create procedure add_cust ( c_name c_num cred_lim tgt_sls c_rep c_offc as begin /* Insert new row of CUSTOMERS table */ insert into customers (cust_num, company, cust_rep, credit_limit) values (c_num, c_name, c_rep, cred_lim); if tgt_sales <= 20000.00 then /* Update row of SALESREPS table */ update salesreps set quota = quota + quota + tgt_sls where empl_num = c_rep; else /* Update row of SALESREPS table */ update salesreps set quota = quota + quota + 20000.00 where empl_num = c_rep; end if; /* Update row of OFFICES table */ update offices set target = target + tgt_sls where city = c_offc; /* Commit transaction and we are done */ commit; end; in varchar2, in number, in number, in number, in number, in varchar2) /* input customer name */ /* input customer number */ /* input credit limit */ /* input target sales */ /* input salesrep empl # */ /* input office city */
FIGURE 20-12
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