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PART VI
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CHAPTER
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SQL and Objects
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he only serious challenge to the dominance of SQL and relational database management over the last decade or so has come from the emergence of an equally significant trend the growing popularity of object-oriented technologies. Objectoriented programming languages (such as C++ and Java), object-oriented development tools, and object-oriented networking (including object request brokers, and more recently, Web Services) have emerged as foundation technologies for modern software development. Object technologies gained much of their initial popularity for building personal computer applications with graphical user interfaces (GUIs). But their impact has grown, and they are being used today to build (and more importantly, to link together) enterprisewide networkbased applications for large corporations. In the early 1990s, a group of venture-backed object-oriented database companies was formed with the goal of applying object-oriented principles to database management. These companies believed that their object-oriented databases would supplant the outdated relational databases as surely as the relational model had supplanted earlier data models. However, they met with limited marketplace success in the face of entrenched relational technologies and SQL. In response to the object challenge, many relational database vendors moved aggressively to graft object technologies onto their relational systems, creating hybrid object-relational models. This chapter describes the object database challenge to SQL and the resulting object-relational features provided by some major DBMS vendors.
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Object-Oriented Databases
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Considerable academic research on database technology over the past decade has been focused on new, post-relational data models. Just as the relational model provided clear-cut advantages over the earlier hierarchical and network models, the goal of this research was to develop new data models that would overcome some of the disadvantages of the relational model. Much of this research has focused on how to merge the principles of object-oriented programming and design with traditional database characteristics, such as persistent storage and transaction management.
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Part VI:
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SQL Today and Tomorrow
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In addition to the academic research, in the early and mid-1990s, some large venture capital investments flowed into a group of startup software companies whose goal was to build a new generation of data management technologies. These companies typically started with the object data structures used by an object-oriented program to manage its inmemory data, and extended them for disk-based storage and multiuser access. These early commercial products included Gemstone (Servio Logic, later renamed to Gemstone Systems), Gbase (Graphael), and Vbase (Ontologic). Products introduced in the mid-1990s included ITASCA (Itasca Systems), Jasmine (Fujitsu, marketed by Computer Associates), Objectivity/DB (Objectivity, Inc.), ObjectStore (Progress Software, acquired by eXcelon, which was originally Object Design), Matisse (Matisse Software), O2 (O2 Technology, eventually acquired by Informix, which was acquired by IBM), ONTOS (Ontos, Inc., formerly Ontologic), POET (Poet Software, now FastObjects from Versant), Versant Object Database (Versant Corporation), and VOSS (Logic Arts). Enthusiastic supporters of these object-oriented databases (OODBs) firmly believed that they would mount a serious challenge to the relational model and become the dominant database architecture by the end of the decade. That scenario proved far off the mark, but the object database vendors have had a significant impact on their relational rivals.
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Object-Oriented Database Characteristics
Unlike the relational data model, where Codd s 1970 paper provided a clear, mathematical definition of a relational database, the object-oriented database has no single definition. However, the core principles embodied in most object-oriented databases include Objects In an object-oriented database, everything is an object and is manipulated as an object. The tabular, row/column organization of a relational database is replaced by the notion of collections of objects. Generally, a collection of objects is itself an object and can be manipulated in the same way that other objects are manipulated. Classes Object-oriented databases replace the relational notion of atomic data types with a hierarchical notion of classes and subclasses. For example, VEHICLES might be a class of object, and individual members (instances) of that class would include a car, a bicycle, a train, or a boat. The VEHICLES class might include subclasses called CARS and BOATS, representing a more specialized form of vehicle. Similarly, the CARS class might include a subclass called CONVERTIBLES, and so on. Inheritance Objects inherit characteristics from their class and from all of the higher-level classes to which they belong. For example, one of the characteristics of a vehicle might be number of passengers. All members of the CARS, BOATS, and CONVERTIBLES classes also have this attribute, because they are subclasses of VEHICLES. The CARS class might also have the attribute number of doors, and the CONVERTIBLES class would inherit this attribute. However, the BOATS class would not inherit the attribute. Attributes The characteristics that an object possesses are modeled by its attributes. Examples include the color of an object, or the number of doors that it has, and its English-language name. The attributes are related to the object they describe in roughly the same way that the columns of a table relate to its rows.
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