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Objects and the Database Market
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In the marketplace, pure object-oriented databases have gained some success in applications with very complex data models and those where the object-oriented model of classes and inheritance closely parallels the real world. However, the object database companies have had real difficulty breaking through into the mainstream. Many have not survived into the first decade of the 21st century. The survivors have had a hard time reaching the $100 million annual revenue mark and achieving sustainable profits, and have experienced significant management changes. In contrast, the largest relational database vendors have continued to experience steady growth. The largest have annual revenues measured in billions of dollars per year, proving that relational database technology continues to dominate the database market today. Not surprisingly, the object-oriented and relational camps have had a substantial impact on one another. With the slow marketplace acceptance of object-oriented technology, the object-oriented vendors have focused on some of the factors that created the success of the relational generation two decades ago. They have formed standards groups such as the Object Data Management Group (ODMG) to standardize object-oriented database technology. Several have added relational adapters, with standard interfaces such as ODBC and SQL, as optional layers for relational access to their databases. Several have focused on the international standards process and have worked to put strong object-oriented capabilities into the SQL standard. The net result has been a trend toward embracing or coexisting with the relational world, rather than competing with it. The object-oriented challenge has had a significant impact on the relational mainstream as well. Several features that began as relational capabilities (for example, stored procedures) are now being touted as providing object-oriented advantages (for example, encapsulation). Vendors have also steadily added selected object-oriented capabilities, such as abstract data types, onto their relational databases. The resulting object-relational databases provide a hybrid of relational and object capabilities. They stretch the relational model some would say past the breaking point to incorporate features such as tables within tables, which model the relationships between object classes.
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One of the major vendors, Informix Software (since acquired by IBM), gained its objectrelational capabilities by acquisition, buying Illustra Software. Illustra s object-relational technology was based on the Postgres work at the University of California at Berkeley, a follow-up to the university s pioneering relational database system, Ingres. The Informix version of the Illustra product was renamed Informix Universal Server. Another of the major vendors, Oracle Corporation, evolved its own mainstream database system to include object-relational technologies. Oracle8, introduced in 1997, embodies several years of intensive Oracle development in this area, and subsequent versions further expanded it. The object-oriented database vendors and the relational vendors response to it have also had a major impact on the SQL standards efforts. The most significant change in the SQL3 version of the standard (formally known as SQL:1999) was the addition of object capabilities. The new object-oriented capabilities nearly doubled the size of the SQL specification in terms of page count. The acquisition and development of object-relational databases by the industry leaders, and the formal adoption of object extensions to SQL, signal the growing synergy between SQL and the world of object technology.
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Object-relational databases typically begin with a relational database foundation and add selected features that provide object-oriented capabilities. This approach simplifies the addition of object capabilities for the major RDBMS vendors, whose enterprise-class RDBMS products have been developed over the course of 15 or more years and would be tremendously costly to reproduce from scratch. It also recognizes the large installed base of relational systems and gives those customers a smoother upgrade path (not to mention an upgrade revenue stream for the vendors). The object extensions that are commonly found in object-relational databases are: Large data objects Traditional relational data types are small integers, dates, short character strings; large data objects can store documents, audio and video clips, web pages, and other new media data types. Structured/abstract data types Relational data types are atomic and indivisible; structured data types allow groups of individual data items to be grouped into higher-level structures that can be treated as entities of their own. User-defined data types Relational databases typically provide a limited range of built-in data types; object-oriented systems and databases emphasize the user s ability to define his or her own new data types. Tables within tables Relational database columns store individual data items; object-relational databases allow columns to contain complex data items, such as structured types or even entire tables. This can be used to represent object hierarchies. Sequences, sets, and arrays In a traditional relational database, sets of data are represented by rows in their own table, linked to an owning entity by a foreign key; object-relational databases may allow the direct storage of collections of data items (sequences, sets, arrays) within a single column.
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