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PART VI
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Part VI:
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Stored procedures Traditional relational databases provide set-based interfaces such as SQL for storing, selecting, and retrieving data; object-relational databases provide procedural interfaces such as stored procedures that encapsulate the data and provide strictly defined interactions. Handles and object-ids A pure relational database requires that data within each row of the database itself (the primary key) uniquely identifies the row; objectrelational databases provide built-in support for row-ids or other unique identifiers for objects.
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Relational databases have traditionally focused on business data processing. They store and manipulate data items that represent money amounts, names, addresses, unit quantities, dates, times, and the like. These data types are relatively simple and require small amounts of storage space, from a few bytes for an integer that holds order or inventory quantities to a few dozen bytes for a customer name, employee address, or product description. Relational databases have been optimized to manage rows containing up to a few dozen columns of this type of data. The techniques they use to manage disk storage and to index data assume that data rows will occupy a few hundred to a few thousand bytes. The programs that store and retrieve data can easily hold dozens or hundreds of these types of data items in memory, and can easily store and retrieve entire rows of data at a time through reasonably sized memory buffers. The row-at-a-time processing techniques for relational query results work well. Many modern types of data have quite different characteristics from traditional business data. A single high-resolution graphical image to be displayed on a PC screen can require hundreds of thousands of bytes of storage or more. A word processing document, such as a contract or the text of this book, can take even more storage. The HTML text that defines web pages and the PostScript and PDF files that define printed images are other examples of larger, document-oriented data items. Even a relatively short high-quality audio track can occupy millions of bytes, and video clips can run to hundreds of megabytes or even gigabytes of data. As multimedia applications have become more important, users have wanted to manage these types of data along with the other data in their databases. The capability to efficiently manage large objects, often called LOBs, was one of the earliest advantages claimed for object-oriented databases.
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The first approach to supporting LOBs in relational databases was through the underlying operating system and its file system. In early implementations, each individual LOB data item was stored in its own operating system file. The name of the file was placed in a character-valued column within a table, as a pointer to the file. The table s other columns could be searched to find rows that met certain criteria. When an application needed to manipulate the LOB content associated with one of the rows, it read the name of the file and retrieved the LOB data from it. Management of the file input/output was the responsibility of the application program. This approach worked, but it was error-prone and required that a programmer understand both the RDBMS and the file system interfaces. The lack of integration between the LOB contents and the database was readily apparent. For example, you couldn t ask the database to compare two LOB data items to see if they were the same, and the database couldn t provide even basic text-searching capability for LOB contents.
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24:
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SQL and Objects
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Today, most major enterprise-class DBMS systems provide direct support for the ANSI/ ISO standard LOB data types: BLOB for binary data, CLOB for character data, and NCLOB for character data in a multibyte national language storage format. You can define a column as containing one of these LOB data types and use it in certain situations in SQL statements. There are typically substantial restrictions on the LOB data, such as not allowing its use in a join condition or in a GROUP BY clause. Sybase provides two large object data types. Its TEXT data type can store up to 2 billion bytes of variable-length text data. You can use a limited set of SQL capabilities (such as the LIKE text-search operator) to search the contents of TEXT columns. A companion IMAGE data type can store up to 2 billion bytes of variable-length binary data. Microsoft SQL Server supports these types, plus an NTEXT data type that allows up to 1 billion characters of 2byte national language text. IBM s DB2 provides a similar set of data types. A DB2 character large object (CLOB) type stores up to 2 billion bytes of text. A DB2 double-byte character large object (DBCLOB) type stores up to 1 billion 2-byte characters. A DB2 binary large object (BLOB) stores up to 2 billion bytes of binary data. Oracle historically provided two large object data types. A LONG data type stored up to 2 billion bytes of text data. A LONG RAW data type stored up to 2 billion bytes of binary data. Oracle restricted the use of either LONG type to only a single column per table. With the introduction of Oracle8, support for LOB data was expanded substantially: An Oracle BLOB type stores up to 8 terabytes of binary data within the database. An Oracle CLOB type stores up to 8 terabytes of single-byte character data within the database. An Oracle NCLOB type stores multibyte character data as a BLOB. An Oracle BFILE type stores long binary data in a file external to the database. The BLOB, CLOB, and NCLOB types are tightly integrated into Oracle s operation, including transaction support. BFILE data is managed through a pointer within the database to an external operating system file. It is not supported by Oracle transaction semantics. Special Oracle PL/SQL functions are provided to manipulate BLOB, CLOB, and NCLOB data from within PL/SQL stored procedures, as described in the next section. Informix Universal Server s support for large object data is similar to that of Oracle. It supports simple large objects and smart large objects: An Informix BYTE type is a simple large object that stores binary data. An Informix TEXT type is a simple large object that stores text data. An Informix BLOB type is a smart large object that stores binary data. An Informix CLOB type is a smart large object that stores text (character) data. Informix simple large objects store up to 2 gigabytes of data. The entire large object must be retrieved or stored as a unit from the application program, or it can be copied between the database and an operating system file. Smart large objects can store up to 4 terabytes of data. Special Informix functions are provided to process smart large objects in smaller, more manageable chunks. These functions provide random access to the contents of an Informix
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