barcode generator in vb.net 2005 Collections and Stored Procedures in Software

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Collections and Stored Procedures
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Collections pose special problems for stored procedures that are retrieving and manipulating data in tables that contain them. Both Oracle and Informix provide special stored procedure language facilities for this purpose. In Informix, special SPL collection
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variables must be used. Here is an SPL stored procedure fragment that handles the PROJECTS collection column from the TECHNICIANS table:
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define define define define proj_coll a_project proj_cnt empl_name collection; varchar(15); integer; name_type; /* /* /* /* holds project collection */ holds individual project */ number of projects */ buffer for tech name */
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/* Check how many projects the technician is supporting */ select cardinality(projects) into proj_cnt from technicians where empl_num = 1234; /* If too many projects, then refuse to add a new one */ if (proj_cnt > 6) then . . . /* Retrieve row, including project set for the technician */ select name, projects into empl_name, proj_coll from technicians where empl_num = 1234; /* Add the 'gonzo' project to the list for this tech */ insert into table(proj_coll) values ('gonzo'); /* Search through project list one by one */ foreach proj_cursor for select * into a_project from table(proj_coll) if (a_project = 'atlas') then begin update table(proj_coll)(project) set project = 'bingo' where current of proj_cursor; exit foreach; end; end if; end foreach; /* Update the database row with modified project list */ update technicians set projects = proj_coll where empl_num = 1234;
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The example shows several aspects of collection-handling in Informix SPL. First, the collection is retrieved from the database into an SPL variable as a collection data type. It would also be possible to retrieve it into a variable explicitly declared as having a SET type (or in other situations, a LIST or MULTISET type). The collection stored in the variable is then explicitly treated as a table for manipulating items within the collection. To add a new project, an INSERT is performed into the collection table. To find and modify a specific project, a cursor is used to search through the collection table, and a cursor-based UPDATE
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PART VI
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Part VI:
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SQL Today and Tomorrow
statement is used to change the value of one member of the collection. Note that the FOREACH loop retrieves each item of the collection into a variable so that the SPL routine can process it. Finally, the collection variable s contents are used to update the collection column within the table. Oracle takes a similar approach to processing varying arrays. The individual elements of an array within an abstract data type are available through subscripted references within a structured data type. The typical Oracle PL/SQL process for accessing variable array elements is 1. Retrieve the row from the table containing the varying array into a local variable whose data type is defined to match the row structure of the table, or of the particular columns being retrieved. 2. Execute a FOR loop with an index variable, n, that counts from 1 to the number of elements in the varying array. The number of elements is available through the value of a special attribute of the array column named COUNT. 3. Within the FOR loop, a subscript is used on the varying array name to access the nth element of the varying array. A similar technique can be used to process nested tables; however, it s usually not necessary. Instead, the TABLE function is generally used to flatten the table in a SQL query, and the results are processed with a single cursor-driven FOR loop. The processing may still be complex. In particular, the stored procedure may need to detect whether a particular row coming from the query results is from the same main table row as the previous row and, upon detecting a change in main table rows, perform special processing such as computing subtotals. In this aspect, the processing of both varying arrays and nested tables begins to resemble the nested-loop processing typical of the COBOL report-writing programs of 30+ years ago that handled master and detail records. As the discussion in this section has illustrated, collection types and the processing of individual collection items tend to call for programmatic access through stored procedures rather than for ad hoc SQL use. One of the criticisms of object-oriented databases is that they are a regression from the simplicity of the relational model and that they reintroduce the need for explicit database navigation that was part of the prerelational databases. Examples like these provide evidence that there is at least a certain amount of truth in the criticism.
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