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SQL Basics
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They can even cause the same SQL query to produce slightly different results on different database management systems. The widely praised portability of SQL is thus true but only at a general level. An application can be moved from one SQL database to another, and it can be highly portable if it uses only the most mainstream, basic SQL capabilities. However, the subtle variations in SQL implementations mean that data types and SQL statements must almost always be adjusted somewhat if they are to be moved across DBMS brands. The more complex the application, the more likely it is to become dependent on DBMS-specific features and nuances, and the less portable it will become.
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Constants
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In some SQL statements, a numeric, character, or date data value must be expressed in text form. For example, in this INSERT statement which adds a salesperson to the database:
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INSERT INTO SALESREPS (EMPL_NUM, NAME, QUOTA, HIRE_DATE, SALES) VALUES (115, 'Dennis Irving', 175000.00, '2008-06-21', 0.00);
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PART II
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the value for each column in the newly inserted row is specified in the VALUES clause. Constant data values are also used in expressions, such as in this SELECT statement:
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SELECT CITY FROM OFFICES WHERE TARGET > (1.1 * SALES) + 10000.00;
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The ANSI/ISO SQL standard specifies the format of numeric and string constants, or literals, which represent specific data values. These conventions are followed by most SQL implementations.
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Integer and decimal constants (also called exact numeric literals) are written as ordinary decimal numbers in SQL statements, with an optional leading plus or minus sign:
21 -375 2000.00 +497500.8778
You must not put a comma between the digits of a numeric constant, and not all SQL dialects allow the leading plus sign, so it s best to avoid it. For money data, most SQL implementations simply use integer or decimal constants, although some allow the constant to be specified with a currency symbol:
$0.75 $5000.00 $-567.89
Floating point constants (also called approximate numeric literals) are specified using the E notation commonly found in programming languages such as C and FORTRAN. Here are some valid SQL floating point constants:
1.5E3 -3.14159E1 2.5E-7 0.783926E21
The E is read times ten to the power of, so the first constant becomes 1.5 times ten to the third power, or 1500.
Part II:
Retrieving Data
String Constants
The ANSI/ISO standard specifies that SQL constants for character data be enclosed in single quotes ('. . . '), as in these examples:
'Jones, John J.' 'New York' 'Western'
If a single quote is to be included in the constant text, it is written within the constant as two consecutive single-quote characters. Thus, this constant value:
'I can''t'
becomes the seven-character string "I can't". Some SQL implementations, such as SQL Server, accept string constants enclosed in double quotes (". . ."):
"Jones, John J." "New York" "Western"
Unfortunately, the double quotes can pose portability problems with other SQL products. The SQL standard provides the additional capability to specify string constants from a specific national character set (for example, French or German) or from a userdefined character set. The user-defined character set capabilities have typically not been implemented in mainstream SQL products.
Date and Time Constants
In SQL products that support date/time data, constant values for dates, times, and time intervals are specified as string constants. The format of these constants varies from one DBMS to the next. Even more variation is introduced by the differences in the way dates and times are written in different countries. IBM s DB2 supports several different international formats for date, time, and timestamp constants, as shown in Table 5-5. The choice of format is made when the DBMS is installed. DB2 also supports durations specified as special constants, as in this example:
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