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Retrieving Data
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FIGURE 8-4
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Group Search Conditions (HAVING Clause)
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Just as the WHERE clause can be used to select and reject the individual rows that participate in a query, the HAVING clause can be used to select and reject row groups. The format of the HAVING clause parallels that of the WHERE clause, consisting of the keyword HAVING followed by a search condition. The HAVING clause thus specifies a search condition for groups. An example provides the best way to understand the role of the HAVING clause. Consider this query: What is the average order size for each salesperson whose orders total more than $30,000
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SELECT FROM GROUP HAVING REP, AVG(AMOUNT) ORDERS BY REP SUM(AMOUNT) > 30000.00;
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REP AVG(AMOUNT) ---- -----------105 $7,865.40 106 $16,479.00 107 $11,477.33 108 $8,376.14
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Figure 8-5 shows graphically how SQL carries out the query. The GROUP BY clause first arranges the orders into groups by salesperson. The HAVING clause then eliminates any group where the total of the orders in the group does not exceed $30,000. Finally, the SELECT clause calculates the average order size for each of the remaining groups and generates the query results. The search conditions you can specify in the HAVING clause are the same ones used in the WHERE clause, as described in s 6 and 9. Here is another example of the use of a group search condition:
8:
Summary Queries
ORDERS Table
GROUPED Table
ORDER_NUM 112961 112989 112975 113057 REP 106 106 103 103 AMOUNT $31,500.00 $1,458.00 $2,100.00 $600.00 TRUE SUM(AMOUNT) > $30,000 SUM(AMOUNT) > $30,000 FALSE
QUERY Results
REP 106 AVG (AMOUNT) $16,479.00
GROUP BY
113051 113045 113013 113024 113007 112992 113049 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 $1,420.00 $45,000.00 $652.00 $7,100.00 $2,925.00 $760.00 $776.00
PART II
FIGURE 8-5
A grouped search condition in operation
For each office with two or more people, compute the total quota and total sales for all salespeople who work in the office.
SELECT FROM WHERE GROUP HAVING CITY, SUM(QUOTA), SUM(SALESREPS.SALES) OFFICES, SALESREPS OFFICE = REP_OFFICE BY CITY COUNT(*) >= 2;
CITY SUM(QUOTA) SUM(SALESREPS.SALES) ------------ ------------ --------------------Chicago $775,000.00 $735,042.00 Los Angeles $700,000.00 $835,915.00 New York $575,000.00 $692,637.00
The following steps show the rules for SQL query processing, expanded once again to include group search conditions. To generate the query results for a SELECT statement: 1. If the statement is a UNION of SELECT statements, apply Steps 2 through 7 to each of the statements to generate their individual query results. 2. Form the product of the tables named in the FROM clause. If the FROM clause names a single table, the product is that table. 3. If there is a WHERE clause, apply its search condition to each row of the product table, retaining those rows for which the search condition is TRUE (and discarding those for which it is FALSE or NULL).
Part II:
Retrieving Data
4. If there is a GROUP BY clause, arrange the remaining rows of the product table into row groups, so that the rows in each group have identical values in all of the grouping columns. 5. If there is a HAVING clause, apply its search condition to each row group, retaining those groups for which the search condition is TRUE (and discarding those for which it is FALSE or NULL). 6. For each remaining row (or row group), calculate the value of each item in the select list to produce a single row of query results. For a simple column reference, use the value of the column in the current row (or row group). For a column function, use the current row group as its argument if GROUP BY is specified; otherwise, use the entire set of rows. 7. If SELECT DISTINCT is specified, eliminate any duplicate rows of query results that were produced. 8. If the statement is a UNION of SELECT statements, merge the query results for the individual statements into a single table of query results. Eliminate duplicate rows unless UNION ALL is specified. 9. If there is an ORDER BY clause, sort the query results as specified. The rows generated by this procedure comprise the query results. Following this procedure, SQL handles the query in the previous example as follows: 1. Joins the OFFICES and SALESREPS tables to find the city where each salesperson works. 2. Groups the resulting rows by office. 3. Eliminates groups with two or fewer rows these represent offices that don t meet the HAVING clause criterion. 4. Calculates the total quota and total sales for each group. Here is one more example, which uses all of the SELECT statement clauses: Show the price, quantity on hand, and total quantity on order for each product where the total quantity on order is more than 75 percent of the quantity on hand.
SELECT FROM WHERE AND GROUP HAVING ORDER DESCRIPTION, PRICE, QTY_ON_HAND, SUM(QTY) PRODUCTS, ORDERS MFR = MFR_ID PRODUCT = PRODUCT_ID BY MFR_ID, PRODUCT_ID, DESCRIPTION, PRICE, QTY_ON_HAND SUM(QTY) > (.75 * QTY_ON_HAND) BY QTY_ON_HAND DESC;
DESCRIPTION PRICE QTY_ON_HAND SUM(QTY) ---------------- ---------- ------------ --------Reducer $355.00 38 32 Widget Adjuster $25.00 37 30 Motor Mount $243.00 15 16 Right Hinge $4,500.00 12 15 500-lb Brace $1,425.00 5 22
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