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3: SQL In Perspective
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SQL is both a de facto and an official standard language for database management. What does it mean for SQL to be a standard What role does SQL play as a database language How did SQL become a standard, and what impact is the SQL standard having on personal computers, local area networks, minicomputers, and mainframes To answer these questions, this chapter traces the history of SQL and describes its current role in the computer market.
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SQL and Database Management
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One of the major tasks of a computer system is to store and manage data. To handle this task, specialized computer programs known as database management systems began to appear in the late 1960s and early 1970s. A database management system, or DBMS, helped computer users to organize and structure their data and allowed the computer system to play a more active role in managing the data. Although database management systems were first developed on large mainframe systems, their popularity has spread to minicomputers, personal computers, workstations, and specialized server computers. Database management also plays a key role in the explosion of computer networking and the Internet. Early database systems ran on laarge, monolithic computer systems, where the data, the database management software, and the user or application program accessing the database all operated on the same system. The 1980s and 1990s saw the explosion of a new, client/server model for database access, in which a user on a personal computer or an application program accessed a database on a separate computer system using a network. In the late 1990s, the increasing popularity of the Internet and the World Wide Web intertwined the worlds of networking and data management even further. Now users require little more than a web browser to access and interact with databases, not only within their own organizations, but around the world. Today, database management is very big business. Independent software companies and computer vendors ship billions of dollars worth of database management products every year. Computer industry experts say that mainframe and minicomputer database products each account for about 10 to 20 percent of the database market, and personal computer and server-based database products account for 50 percent or more. Database servers are one of the fastest-growing segments of the computer systems market, driven by database installations on Unix and Windows NT-based servers. Database management thus touches every segment of the computer market. Since the late 1980s a specific type of DBMS, called a relational database management system (RDBMS), has become so popular that it is the standard database form. Relational databases organize data in a simple, tabular form and provide many advantages over earlier types of databases. SQL is specifically a relational database language used to work with relational databases.
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A Brief History of SQL
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The history of the SQL language is intimately intertwined with the development of relational databases. Table 3-1 shows some of the milestones in its 30-year history. The relational database concept was originally developed by Dr. E.F. "Ted" Codd, an IBM researcher. In June 1970 Dr. Codd published an article entitled "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks" that outlined a mathematical theory of how data could be stored and manipulated using a tabular structure. Relational databases and SQL trace their origins to this article, which appeared in the Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. Table 3-1: Milestones in the Development of SQL
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Date
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Event
1970 1974 1974 1978 1979 1981 1981 1982 1983 1986 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1992 1992 1993 1993 1994 1994 1996
Codd defines relational database model IBM's System/R project begins First article describing the SEQUEL language System/R customer tests Oracle introduces first commercial RDBMS Relational Technology introduces Ingres IBM announces SQL/DS ANSI forms SQL standards committee IBM announces DB2 ANSI SQL1 standard ratified Sybase introduces RDBMS for transaction processing ISO SQL1 standard ratified Ashton-Tate and Microsoft announce SQL Server for OS/2 First TPC benchmark (TPC-A) published TPC-B benchmark published SQL Access Group database access specification published Microsoft publishes ODBC specification ANSI SQL2 standard ratified TPC-C (OLTP) benchmark published First shipment of specialized SQL data warehousing systems First shipment of ODBC products TPC-D (decision support) benchmark published Commercial shipment of parallel database server technology Publication of standard API for OLAP database access and OLAP benchmark
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1997 1997 1998
IBM DB2 UDB unifies DB2 architecture across IBM and other vendor platforms Major DBMS vendors announce Java integration strategies Microsoft SQL Server 7 provides enterprise-level database support for Windows NT Oracle 8i provides database/Internet integration and moves away from client/server model
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