free barcode generator using vb.net Modifying Data in the Database in Software

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Modifying Data in the Database
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Typically, the values of data items stored in a database are modified when corresponding changes occur in the outside world. For example, in the sample database: When a customer calls to change the quantity on an order, the QTY column in the appropriate row of the ORDERS table must be modified. When a manager moves from one office to another, the MGR column in the OFFICES table and the REP_OFFICE column in the SALESREPS table must be changed to reflect the new assignment. When sales quotas are raised by 5 percent in the New York sales office, the QUOTA column of the appropriate rows in the SALESREPS table must be modified. In each case, data values in the database are updated to maintain the database as an accurate model of the real world. The smallest unit of data that can be modified in a database is a single column of a single row.
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The UPDATE Statement
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The UPDATE statement, shown in Figure 10-6, modifies the values of one or more columns in selected rows of a single table. The target table to be updated is named in the statement, and you must have the required permission to update the table as well as each of the individual columns that will be modified. The WHERE clause selects the rows of the table to be modified. The SET clause specifies which columns are to be updated and calculates the new values for them.
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Figure 10-6: UPDATE statement syntax diagram
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Here is a simple UPDATE statement that changes the credit limit and salesperson for a customer:
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Raise the credit limit for Acme Manufacturing to $60,000 and reassign them to Mary Jones (employee number 109). /UPDATE CUSTOMERS SET CREDIT_LIMIT = 60000.00, CUST_REP = 109 WHERE COMPANY = 'Acme Mfg.' 1 row updated. In this example, the WHERE clause identifies a single row of the CUSTOMERS table, and the SET clause assigns new values to two of the columns in that row. The WHERE clause is exactly the same one you would use in a DELETE or SELECT statement to identify the row. In fact, the search conditions that can appear in the WHERE clause of an UPDATE statement are exactly the same as those available in the SELECT and DELETE statements. Like the DELETE statement, the UPDATE statement can update several rows at once with the proper search condition, as in this example: Transfer all salespeople from the Chicago office (number 12) to the New York office (number 11), and lower their quotas by 10 percent. UPDATE SALESREPS SET REP_OFFICE = 11, QUOTA = .9 * QUOTA WHERE REP_OFFICE = 12 3 rows updated. In this case, the WHERE clause selects several rows of the SALESREPS table, and the value of the REP_OFFICE and QUOTA columns are modified in all of them. Conceptually, SQL processes the UPDATE statement by going through the SALESREPS table row by row, updating those rows for which the search condition yields a TRUE result and skipping over those for which the search condition yields a FALSE or NULL result. Because it searches the table, this form of the UPDATE statement is sometimes called a searched UPDATE statement. This term distinguishes it from a different form of the UPDATE statement, called a positioned UPDATE statement, which always updates a single row. The positioned UPDATE statement applies only to programmatic SQL and is described in 17. Here are some additional examples of searched UPDATE statements: Reassign all customers served by employee number 105, 106, or 107 to employee number 102. UPDATE CUSTOMERS SET CUST_REP = 102 WHERE CUST_REP IN (105, 106, 107) 5 rows updated. Assign a quota of $100,000 to any salesperson who currently has no quota. UPDATE SALESREPS SET QUOTA = 100000.00 WHERE QUOTA IS NULL
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1 row updated. The SET clause in the UPDATE statement is a list of assignments separated by commas. Each assignment identifies a target column to be updated and specifies how to calculate the new value for the target column. Each target column should appear only once in the list; there should not be two assignments for the same target column. The ANSI/ISO specification mandates unqualified names for the target columns, but some SQL implementations allow qualified column names. There can be no ambiguity in the column names anyway, because they must refer to columns of the target table. The expression in each assignment can be any valid SQL expression that yields a value of the appropriate data type for the target column. The expression must be computable based on the values of the row currently being updated in the target table. In most DBMS implementations, the expression may not include any column functions or subqueries. If an expression in the assignment list references one of the columns of the target table, the value used to calculate the expression is the value of that column in the current row before any updates are applied. The same is true of column references that occur in the WHERE clause. For example, consider this (somewhat contrived) UPDATE statement: UPDATE OFFICES SET QUOTA = 400000.00, SALES = QUOTA WHERE QUOTA < 400000.00
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Before the update, Bill Adams had a QUOTA value of $350,000 and a SALES value of $367,911. After the update, his row has a SALES value of $350,000, not $400,000. The order of the assignments in the SET clause is thus immaterial; the assignments can be specified in any order.
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