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programs, run on the personal computer. The back-end database engine that stores and manages the data runs on the server. As the client/server architecture grew in popularity during the 1990s, SQL became the standard database language for communication between the front-end tools and the back-end engine in this architecture. Consider once more the query requesting the average order size. In the client/server architecture, the query travels across the network to the database server as a SQL request. The database engine on the server processes the request and scans the database, which also resides on the server. When the result is calculated, the database engine sends it back across the network as a single reply to the initial request, and the front-end application displays it on the PC screen. The client/server architecture reduces the network traffic and splits the database workload. User-intensive functions, such as handling input and displaying data, are concentrated on the user s PC. Data-intensive functions, such as file I/O and query processing, are concentrated in the database server. Most importantly, the SQL language provides a well-defined interface between the front-end and back-end systems, communicating database access requests in an efficient manner. By the mid-1990s, these advantages made the client/server architecture the most popular scheme for implementing new applications. All of the most popular DBMS products Oracle, Informix, Sybase, SQL Server, DB2, and many more offered client/server capability. The database industry grew to include many companies offering tools for building client/server applications. Some of these came from the database companies themselves; others came from independent companies. Like all architectures, client/server had its disadvantages. The most serious of these was the problem of managing the applications software that was now distributed across hundreds or thousands of desktop PCs instead of running on a central minicomputer or mainframe. To update an application program in a large company, the information systems department had to update thousands of PC systems, one at a time. The situation was even worse if changes to the application program had to be synchronized with changes to other applications, or to the DBMS system itself. In addition, with personal computers on user s desks, users tended to add new personal software of their own or to change the configuration of their systems. Such changes often disrupted existing applications, adding to the support burden. Companies developed strategies to deal with these issues, but by the late 1990s, there was growing concern about the manageability of client/server applications on large, distributed PC networks.
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With the emergence of the Internet and especially the World Wide Web, network database architecture took another step in its evolution. At first, the Web was used to access (browse) static documents and evolved outside of the database world. But as the use of web browsers became widespread, it wasn t long before companies thought about using them as a simple way to provide access to corporate databases as well. For example, suppose a company starts using the Web to provide product information to its customers by making product descriptions and graphics available on its web site. A natural next step is to give customers access to current product availability information
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through the same web browser interface. This requires linking the web server to the database system that stores the (constantly changing) current product inventory levels. The methods used to link web servers and DBMS systems evolved rapidly in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and have converged on the three-tier network architecture shown in Figure 3-5. The user interface is a web browser running on a PC or some other thin client device in the front tier. It communicates with a web server in the middle tier. When the user request is for something more complex than a simple web page, the web server passes the request to an application server, whose role is to handle the business logic required to process the request. Often, the request will involve access to an existing (legacy) application running on a mainframe system or to a corporate database. These systems run in the back tier of the architecture. As with the client/server architecture, SQL is solidly entrenched as the standard database language for communicating between the application server and backend databases. All of the packaged application server products provide a SQL-based callable API for database access. As the application server market has converged around the Java2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) standard, Java DataBase Connectivity (JDBC) has emerged as the standard API for application server access to databases.
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