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The GRANT and REVOKE statements are described in detail later in this chapter, in the sections Granting Privileges and Revoking Privileges.
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Each user of a SQL-based database is typically assigned a user-id, a short name that identifies the user to the DBMS software. The user-id is at the heart of SQL security. Every SQL statement executed by the DBMS is carried out on behalf of a specific user-id. The user-id determines whether the statement will be permitted or prohibited by the DBMS. In a production database, user-ids are assigned by the database administrator. A personal computer database may have only a single user-id, identifying the user who created and who owns the database. In special-purpose databases (for example, those designed to be embedded within an application or a special-purpose system), there may be no need for the additional overhead associated with SQL security. These databases typically operate as if there were a single user-id. In practice, the restrictions on the names that can be chosen as user-ids vary from implementation to implementation. The SQL1 standard permitted user-ids of up to 18 characters and required them to be valid SQL names. In some mainframe DBMS systems, user-ids may have no more than eight characters. In Sybase and SQL Server, user-ids may have up to 30 characters. If portability is a concern, it s best to limit user-ids to eight or fewer characters. Figure 15-2 shows various users who need access to the sample database and typical user-ids assigned to them. Note that all of the users in the orderprocessing department can be assigned the same user-id because they are to have identical privileges in the database.
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The ANSI/ISO SQL standard uses the term authorization-id instead of user-id, and you will occasionally find this term used in other SQL documentation. Technically, authorization-id is a more accurate term because the role of the ID is to determine authorization or privileges in the database. There are situations, as in Figure 15-2, where it makes sense to assign the same user-id to different users. In other situations, a single person may use two or three different user-ids. In a production database, authorizationids may be associated with programs and groups of programs, rather than with human users. In each of these situations, authorization-id is a more precise and less confusing term than user-id. However, the most common practice is to assign a different user-id to each person, and most SQL-based DBMS use the term user-id in their documentation.
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The SQL standard specifies that user-ids provide database security; however, the specific mechanism for associating a user-id with a SQL statement is outside the scope of the standard because a database can be accessed in many different ways. For example, when you type SQL statements into an interactive SQL utility, how does the DBMS determine which user-id is associated with the statements If you use a forms-based data entry or query program, how does the DBMS determine your user-id On a database server, a report-generating program might be scheduled to run at a preset time every evening; what is the user-id in this situation, where there is no human user Finally, how are user-ids handled when you access a database across a network, where your user-id on the system where you are actively working might be different than the user-id established on the system where the database resides Most commercial SQL implementations establish a user-id for each database session. In interactive SQL, the session begins when you start the interactive SQL program, and it lasts until you exit the program. In an application program using programmatic SQL, the session begins when the application program connects to the DBMS, and it ends when the application program terminates. All of the SQL statements used during the session are associated with the user-id specified for the session. Usually, you must supply both a user-id and an associated password at the beginning of a session. The DBMS checks the password to verify that you are, in fact, authorized to use the user-id that you supply. Although user-ids and passwords are common across most SQL products, the specific techniques used to specify the user-id and password vary from one product to another. Some DBMS brands, especially those that are available on many different operating system platforms, implement their own user-id/password security. For example, when you use Oracle s interactive SQL program, called SQLPLUS, you specify a user name and associated password in the command that starts the program, like this:
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