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Databases have been popular on personal computers since the early days of the IBM PC. Ashton-Tate s dBASE product reached an installed base of over one million
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MS-DOS-based PCs. Although these early PC databases often presented data in tabular form, they lacked the full power of a relational DBMS and a relational database language such as SQL. The first SQL-based PC databases were versions of popular minicomputer products that barely fit on personal computers. For example, Professional Oracle for the IBM PC, introduced in 1984, required two megabytes of memory well above the typical 640KB PC configuration of the day. The real impact of SQL on personal computers began with the announcement of OS/2 by IBM and Microsoft in April 1987. In addition to the standard OS/2 product, IBM announced a proprietary OS/2 Extended Edition (OS/2 EE) with a built-in SQL database and communications support. With the introduction, IBM again signaled its strong commitment to SQL, saying in effect that SQL was so important that it belonged in the computer s operating system. OS/2 Extended Edition presented Microsoft with a problem. As the developer and distributor of standard OS/2 to other personal computer manufacturers, Microsoft needed an alternative to the Extended Edition. Microsoft responded by licensing the Sybase DBMS, which had been developed for VAX, and began porting it to OS/2. In January 1988, in a surprise move, Microsoft and Ashton-Tate (the PC database leader at the time with its dBASE product) announced that they would jointly sell the resulting OS/2-based product, renamed SQL Server. Microsoft would sell SQL Server with OS/2 to computer manufacturers; Ashton-Tate would sell the product through retail channels to PC users. In September 1989, Lotus Development (the other member of the big three of PC software at the time) added its endorsement of SQL Server by investing in Sybase. Later that year, Ashton-Tate relinquished its exclusive retail distribution rights and sold its investment to Lotus. SQL Server for OS/2 met with only limited success. But in typical Microsoft fashion, Microsoft continued to invest heavily in SQL Server development and ported it to its Windows NT operating system. For a while, Microsoft and Sybase remained partners, with Sybase focused on the minicomputer and UNIX-based server markets and Microsoft focused on PC LANs and Windows NT. As Windows NT and UNIX systems became more and more competitive as database server operating system platforms, the relationship became less cooperative and more competitive. Eventually, Sybase and Microsoft went their separate ways. The common heritage of Sybase s and Microsoft s SQL products can still be seen in product capabilities and some common SQL extensions (for example, stored procedures), but the product lines have already diverged significantly. Today, SQL Server is a major database system on Windows-based servers. SQL Server 7, which shipped in late 1998, provided a significant step up in the size and scale of database applications that SQL Server can support. SQL Server 2000, which runs on Windows 2000, provided another major step. SQL Server is slated to continue in a major role as Microsoft rolls out more of its .NET server product family. In addition to SQL Server s impact, the availability of Oracle, and to a lesser extent, Informix, DB2, and other mainstream DBMS products, has helped Windows-based servers to steadily make inroads into UNIX s dominance as a database server platform. While UNIX continues to dominate the largest database server installations, server configurations
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of the Windows operating system and the Intel architecture systems on which it runs have achieved credibility in the midrange market.
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SQL and relational databases originally had very little impact in online transaction processing (OLTP) applications. With their emphasis on queries, relational databases were confined to decision support and low-volume online applications, where their slower performance was not a disadvantage. For OLTP applications, where hundreds of users needed online access to data and subsecond response times, IBM s nonrelational Information Management System (IMS) reigned as the dominant DBMS. In 1986, a new DBMS vendor, Sybase, introduced a new SQL-based database especially designed for OLTP applications. The Sybase DBMS ran on VAX/VMS minicomputers and Sun workstations, and focused on maximum online performance. Oracle Corporation and Relational Technology followed shortly with announcements that they, too, would offer OLTP versions of their popular Oracle and Ingres database systems. In the UNIX market, Informix announced an OLTP version of its DBMS, named Informix-Turbo. In 1988, IBM jumped on the relational OLTP bandwagon with DB2 Version 2, with benchmarks showing the new version operating at over 250 transactions per second on large mainframes. IBM claimed that DB2 performance was now suitable for all but the most demanding OLTP applications, and encouraged customers to consider it as a serious alternative to IMS. OLTP benchmarks have now become a standard sales tool for relational databases, despite serious questions about how well the benchmarks actually measure performance in real applications. The suitability of SQL for OLTP improved dramatically through the 1990s, with advances in relational technology and more powerful computer hardware both leading to ever-higher transaction rates. DBMS vendors started to position their products based on their OLTP performance, and for a few years database advertising focused almost entirely on these performance benchmark wars. A vendor-independent organization, the Transaction Processing Council, jumped into the benchmarking fray with a series of vendor-independent benchmarks (TPC-A, TPC-B, and TPC-C), which only served to intensify the performance focus of the vendors. By the late 1990s, SQL-based relational databases on high-end UNIX-based database servers evolved well past the 1000-transactions-per-second mark. Client/server systems using SQL databases have become the accepted architecture for implementing OLTP applications. From a position as unsuitable for OLTP, SQL has grown to be the industry standard foundation for building OLTP applications.
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