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main() { exec sql exec sql int char char float float exec sql
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include sqlca; begin declare section; officenum; /* cityname[16]; /* regionname[11]; /* targetval; /* salesval; /* end declare section;
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office number (from user) */ retrieved city name */ retrieved region name */ retrieved target and sales */ retrieved target and sales */
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/* Set up error processing */ exec sql whenever sqlerror goto query_error; exec sql whenever not found goto bad_number; /* Prompt the user for the employee number */ printf("Enter office number:"); scanf("%d", &officenum); /* Execute the SQL query */ exec sql select city, region, target, sales from offices where office = :officenum into :cityname, :regionname, :targetval, :salesval; /* Display the results printf("City: %s\n", printf("Region: %s\n", printf("Target: %f\n", printf("Sales: %f\n", exit(); */ cityname); regionname); targetval); salesval);
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query_error: printf("SQL error: %ld\n", sqlca.sqlcode); exit(); bad_number: printf("Invalid office number.\n"); exit(); }
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Figure 17-2.
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A typical embedded SQL program
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Figure 17-3. The steps in the figure are actually those used by the IBM mainframe databases (DB2, SQL/DS), but all products that support embedded SQL use a similar process: 1. The embedded SQL source program is submitted to the SQL precompiler, a programming tool. The precompiler scans the program, finds the embedded SQL statements, and processes them. A different precompiler is required for each programming language supported by the DBMS. Commercial SQL products typically offer precompilers for one or more languages, including C, Pascal, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada, PL/I, RPG, and various assembly languages. 2. The precompiler produces two files as its output. The first file is the source program, stripped of its embedded SQL statements. In their place, the precompiler substitutes calls to the private DBMS routines that provide the runtime link between the program and the DBMS. Typically, the names and calling sequences of these routines are known only to the precompiler and the DBMS; they are not a public interface to the DBMS. The second file is a copy of all the embedded SQL statements used in the program. This file is sometimes called a database request module, or DBRM. 3. The source file output from the precompiler is submitted to the standard compiler for the host programming language (such as a C or COBOL compiler). The compiler processes the source code and produces object code as its output. Note that this step has nothing in particular to do with the DBMS or with SQL. 4. The linker accepts the object modules generated by the compiler, links them with various library routines, and produces an executable program. The library routines linked into the executable program include the private DBMS routines described in Step 2. 5. The database request module generated by the precompiler is submitted to a special BIND program. This program examines the SQL statements, parses, validates, and optimizes them, and produces an application plan for each statement. The result is a combined application plan for the entire program, representing a DBMS-executable version of its embedded SQL statements. The BIND program stores the plan in the database, usually assigning it the name of the application program that created it. The program development steps in Figure 17-3 correlate with the DBMS statement processing steps in Figure 17-1. In particular, the precompiler usually handles statement parsing (the first step), and the BIND utility handles verification, optimization, and plan generation (the second, third, and fourth steps). Thus, the first four steps of Figure 17-1 all take place at compile-time when you use embedded SQL. Only the fifth step, the actual execution of the application plan, remains to be done at runtime. The embedded SQL development process turns the original embedded SQL source program into two executable parts:
17:
Embedded SQL
Figure 17-3.
The embedded SQL development process
I An executable program. Stored in a file on the computer in the same format as any executable program I An executable application plan. Stored within the database in the format expected by the DBMS The embedded SQL development cycle may seem cumbersome, and it is more awkward than developing a standard C or COBOL program. In most cases, all of the steps in Figure 17-3 are automated by a single command procedure, so the individual steps are made invisible to the application programmer. The process does have several major advantages from a DBMS point of view, shown next.
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