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. . . 01 PRINT_MESSAGE. 02 FILLER PIC X(11) VALUE 'SQL error:'. 02 PRINT-CODE PIC SZ(9). . . . EXEC SQL DELETE FROM SALESREPS WHERE QUOTA < 150000 END EXEC. IF SQLCODE NOT = ZERO GOTO ERROR-ROUTINE. . . . ERROR-ROUTINE. MOVE SQLCODE TO PRINT-CODE. DISPLAY PRINT_MESSAGE. . . .
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By the time the SQL2 standard was being written, virtually all commercial SQL products were using the SQLCODE variable to report error conditions in an embedded SQL program. However, there was no standardization of the error numbers used by the different products to report the same or similar error conditions. Further, because of the significant differences among SQL implementations permitted by the SQL1 standard, considerable differences in the errors could occur from one implementation to another. Finally, the definition of the SQLCA varied in significant ways from one DBMS brand to another, and all of the major brands had a large installed base of applications that would be broken by any change to their SQLCA structure. Instead of tackling the impossible task of getting all of the DBMS vendors to agree to change their SQLCODE values to some standard, the writers of the SQL2 standard took a different approach. They included the SQLCODE error value, but identified it as a deprecated feature, meaning that it was considered obsolete and would be removed
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Embedded SQL
from the standard at some future time. To take its place, they introduced a new error variable, called SQLSTATE. The standard also specifies, in detail, the error conditions that can be reported through the SQLSTATE variable, and the error code assigned to each error. To conform to the SQL2 standard, a SQL product must report errors using both the SQLCODE and SQLSTATE error variables. In this way, existing programs that use SQLCODE will still function, but new programs can be written to use the standardized SQLSTATE error codes. The SQLSTATE variable consists of two parts: I A two-character error class that identifies the general classification of the error (such as a connection error, an invalid data error, or a warning). I A three-character error subclass that identifies a specific type of error within a general error class. For example, within the invalid data class, the error subclass might identify a divide by zero error, an invalid numeric value error, or invalid datetime data. Errors specified in the SQL2 standard have an error class code that begins with a digit from zero to four (inclusive) or a letter between A and H (inclusive). For example, data errors are indicated by error class 22. A violation of an integrity constraint (such as a foreign key definition) is indicated by error class 23. A transaction rollback is indicated by error class 40. Within each error class, the standard subclass codes also follow the same initial number/letter restrictions. For example, within error class 40 (transaction rollback), the subclass codes are 001 for serialization failure (that is, your program was chosen as the loser in a deadlock), 002 for an integrity constraint violation, and 003 for errors where the completion status of the SQL statement is unknown (for example, when a network connection breaks or a server crashes before the statement completes). Figure 17-12 shows the same C program as Figure 17-10, but uses the SQLSTATE variable for error checking instead of SQLCODE. The standard specifically reserves error class codes that begin with digits from five to nine (inclusive) and letters between I and Z (inclusive) as implementation-specific errors that are not standardized. While this allows differences among DBMS brands to continue, all of the most common errors caused by SQL statements are included in the standardized error class codes. As commercial DBMS implementations move to support the SQLSTATE variable, one of the most troublesome incompatibilities between different SQL products is gradually being eliminated. The SQL2 standard provides additional error and diagnostics information through a new GET DIAGNOSTICS statement, shown in Figure 17-13. The statement allows an embedded SQL program to retrieve one or more items of information about the SQL statement just executed, or about an error condition that was just raised. Support for the GET DIAGNOSTICS statement is required for Intermediate SQL or Full SQL conformance to the standard but is not required or allowed in Entry SQL. Figure 17-14 shows a C program excerpt like that in Figure 17-12, extended to include the GET DIAGNOSTICS statement.
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