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main() { exec sql int char float float exec sql
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begin declare section; repnum; repname[16]; repquota; repsales; end declare section;
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employee number (from user) */ retrieved salesperson name */ retrieved quota */ retrieved sales */
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/* Prompt the user for the employee number */ printf("Enter salesrep number: "); scanf("%d", &repnum); /* Execute the SQL query */ exec sql select name, quota, sales from salesreps where empl_num = :repnum into :repname, :repquota, :repsales; /* Display the retrieved data */ if (sqlca.sqlcode = = 0) { printf("Name: %s\n", repname); printf("Quota: %f\n", repquota); printf("Sales: %f\n", repsales); } else if (sqlca.sqlcode = = 100) printf("No salesperson with that employee number.\n"); else printf("SQL error: %ld\n", sqlca.sqlcode); exit();
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Figure 17-20.
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programs. For COBOL and FORTRAN programs, the host variable must generally be declared as a data structure with an integer count field and a character array. The DBMS returns the actual characters of data in the character array, and it returns the length of the data in the count field of the data structure.
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17:
Embedded SQL
If a DBMS supports date/time data or other data types, other conversions are necessary. Some DBMS products return their internal date/time representations into an integer host variable. Others convert the date/time data to text format and return it into a string host variable. Table 17-1 summarized the data type conversions typically provided by DBMS products, but you must consult the embedded SQL documentation for your particular DBMS brand for specific information.
The NOT FOUND Condition
Like all embedded SQL statements, the singleton SELECT statement sets the values of the SQLCODE and SQLSTATE variables to indicate its completion status: I If a single row of query results is successfully retrieved, SQLCODE is set to zero and SQLSTATE is set to 00000; the host variables named in the INTO clause contain the retrieved values. I If the query produced an error, SQLCODE is set to a negative value and SQLSTATE is set to a nonzero error class (the first two characters of the five-digit SQLSTATE string); the host variables do not contain retrieved values. I If the query produced no rows of query results, a special NOT FOUND warning value is returned in SQLCODE, and SQLSTATE returns a NO DATA error class. I If the query produced more than one row of query results, it is treated as an error, and a negative SQLCODE is returned. The SQL1 standard specifies the NOT FOUND warning condition, but it does not specify a particular value to be returned. DB2 uses the value +100, and most other SQL products follow this convention, including the other IBM SQL products, Ingres, and SQLBase. This value is also specified in the SQL2 standard, but as noted previously, SQL2 strongly encourages the use of the new SQLSTATE error variable instead of the older SQLCODE values.
Retrieving NULL Values
If the data to be retrieved from a database may contain NULL values, the singleton SELECT statement must provide a way for the DBMS to communicate the NULL values to the application program. To handle NULL values, embedded SQL uses indicator variables in the INTO clause, just as they are used in the VALUES clause of the INSERT statement and the SET clause of the UPDATE statement. When you specify a host variable in the INTO clause, you can follow it immediately with the name of a companion host indicator variable. Figure 17-21 shows a revised version of the program in Figure 17-20 that uses the indicator variable repquota_ind with the host variable repquota. Because the NAME and SALES columns are declared NOT NULL in the definition of the SALESREPS table, they cannot produce NULL output values, and no indicator variable is needed for those columns.
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