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SELECT FROM WHERE ORDER NAME, QUOTA, SALES SALESREPS SALES > QUOTA BY NAME
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Notice that this query appears, word for word, in the embedded DECLARE CURSOR statement in Figure 17-23. The statement also associates the cursor name repcurs with the query. This cursor name is used later in the OPEN CURSOR statement to start the query and position the cursor before the first row of query results. The FETCH statement inside the for loop fetches the next row of query results each time the loop is executed. The INTO clause of the FETCH statement works just like the INTO clause of the singleton SELECT statement. It specifies the host variables that are to receive the fetched data items one host variable for each column of query results. As in previous examples, a host indicator variable (repquota_ind) is used when a fetched data item may contain NULL values. When no more rows of query results are to be fetched, the DBMS returns the NOT FOUND warning in response to the FETCH statement. This is exactly the same warning code that is returned when the singleton SELECT statement does not retrieve a row of data. In this program, the WHENEVER NOT FOUND statement causes the precompiler to generate code that checks the SQLCODE value after the FETCH statement. This generated code branches to the label done when the NOT FOUND condition arises, and to the label error if an error occurs. At the end of the program, the CLOSE statement ends the query and terminates the program s access to the query results.
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main() { exec sql exec sql char float float short exec sql
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include sqlca; begin declare section; repname[16]; repquota; repsales; repquota_ind; end declare section;
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/* /* /* /*
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retrieved salesperson name */ retrieved quota */ retrieved sales */ null quota indicator */
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/* Declare the cursor for the query */ exec sql declare repcurs cursor for select name, quota, sales from salesreps where sales > quota order by name; /* Set up error processing */ whenever sqlerror goto error; whenever not found goto done; /* Open the cursor to start the query */ exec sql open repcurs; /* Loop through each row of query results */ for (;;) {
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/* Fetch the next row of query results */ exec sql fetch repcurs 3 into :repname, :repquota, :repquota_ind, repsales; /* Display the retrieved data */ printf("Name: %s\n", repname); if (repquota_ind < 0) printf("Quota is NULL\n"); else printf("Quota: %f\n", repquota); printf("Sales: %f\n", repsales); } error: printf("SQL error: %ld\n", sqlca.sqlcode); exit(); done: /* Query complete; close the cursor */ exec sql close repcurs; exit(); }
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PROGRAMMING WITH SQL
Figure 17-23.
Multirow query processing
SQL: The Complete Reference
Cursors
As the program in Figure 17-23 illustrates, an embedded SQL cursor behaves much like a filename or file handle in a programming language such as C or COBOL. Just as a program opens a file to access the file s contents, it opens a cursor to gain access to the query results. Similarly, the program closes a file to end its access and closes a cursor to end access to the query results. Finally, just as a file handle keeps track of the program s current position within an open file, a cursor keeps track of the program s current position within the query results. These parallels between file input/output and SQL cursors make the cursor concept relatively easy for application programmers to understand. Despite the parallels between files and cursors, there are also some differences. Opening a SQL cursor usually involves much more overhead than opening a file, because opening the cursor actually causes the DBMS to begin carrying out the associated query. In addition, SQL cursors support only sequential motion through the query results, like sequential file processing. In most current SQL implementations, there is no cursor analog to the random access provided to the individual records of a file. Cursors provide a great deal of flexibility for processing queries in an embedded SQL program. By declaring and opening multiple cursors, the program can process several sets of query results in parallel. For example, the program might retrieve some rows of query results, display them on the screen for its user, and then respond to a user s request for more detailed data by launching a second query. The following sections describe in detail the four embedded SQL statements that define and manipulate cursors.
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